Articles

  1. AN ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF EWECS COMPOSITE COLUMN WITH AND WITHOUT SHEAR STUDS Download Article

    Fauzan, Ruddy Kurniawan and Zev Al Jauhari
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1-7)
    • No of Download = 378

    Abstract

    close

    This paper explains the numerical analysis of EWECS (Engineering Wood Encased Concrete-Steel) column accompanied with shear stud connection under constant axial and lateral cyclic loads based on the previous experiment. This is the new structure system contains concrete encased steel (CES) core with an exterior wood panel. The experiment was performed in a variety of wood panel connection to the concrete. In this study, the non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is performed by modeling the column with the 3D solid element and the friction devices of the shear stud with the two-node-link element. The hysteresis characteristics comparison between experiment and numerical results show that the peak forces in every last loop (story drift) and hysteresis curves shape have similarity as well as on the main stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation. The presence of shear studs on EWECS columns improved the ductility of the column and reduced the damage of wood panel, but there was no much influence on maximum flexural strength of the column. With shear studs, the wood panel contributed to flexural capacity until maximum story drift, R of 5%, although cracks appeared at the column faces after R of 4%. Generally, the analytical method can be used to predict accurately the ultimate strength and behavior of EWECS columns.

  2. COMPLEX OF STATIC LOADING TESTS OF BORED PILES Download Article

    Askar Zhussupbekov, Yoshinori Iwasaki, Abdulla Omarov, Gulzhanat Tanyrbergenova and Sungat Akhazhanov
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (8-13)
    • No of Download = 391

    Abstract

    close

    This paper presents the complex analysis of diverse field loading tests of ten large diameter deep bored piles on CFA technology at the Karachaganak Processing Complex (KPC), Aksay, Kazakhstan. On the basis of core sample analysis and seismic studies, the geological conditions of this field are varied and complicated. According to the project design, the field tests of CFA bored piles with diameter 600 mm, length from 15.51 m to 21.85 m were performed by two static laterals, four static tensile and four static compression pile loading tests. Static loading tests applied a load to a deep-foundation element gradually for measuring foundation settlement. The static loading tests were performed by ASTM D1143, ASTM D3689, and ASTM D3966. In this paper are shown the load-settlement and the load-displacement diagrams from those field tests which give the possibility to identify the bearing capacity of piles at this ground. The analysis showed that the bearing capacity of bored piles with different lengths corresponds to the design requirements.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF STEEL FIBER WASTE TYRE ON HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE Download Article

    Fauzan, Ruddy Kurniawan, Oscar Fitrah N, Claudia Lovina A. N and Zev Al Jauhari
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (14-19)
    • No of Download = 408

    Abstract

    close

    High strength concrete (HSC) is defined as concrete with a specified compressive strength of 40 MPa or greater. Concrete with high strength is basically a brittle material, with low tensile strength. One way to improve the brittle and weak concrete properties towards tensile strength is by utilizing fiber. The utilization of steel fiber from waste tires (SFWT) in high strength concrete can be used as an alternative to improve the mechanical properties of the concrete and also has benefit to reduce the waste of used tires that are increasing every year. This research was conducted to determine the effect of the addition of SFWT on HSC and high strength concrete containing silica fume (HSCSF). The SFWT is obtained from the extracting of used tires that are cut into 4 cm long. The specimen used is a cylinder with a diameter 15 cm, height 30 cm and beam with dimension 10x10x50 cm. The content of silica fume on HSC is 10% by replacing the cement weight. The addition of SFWT in both HSC and HSCSF are 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2%. Mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths are tested at 28 days ago. The results show that the addition of SFWT increases the mechanical properties of HSC and HSCSF. The increase of SFWT content results in the higher mechanical properties of the HSC. In addition, the presence of SFWT in the HSC delays the crack width of the concrete and prevents the brittle collapse.

  4. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF MALAYSIAN RESIDUAL SOILS FOR UTILIZATION AS CLAY LINERS IN ENGINEERED LANDFILLS Download Article

    Lee Li Yong, Endene Emmanuel, Ria Purwani and Vivi Anggraini
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (20-25)
    • No of Download = 380

    Abstract

    close

    Compacted natural soils are often used as liner materials in engineered landfills to minimize the environmental impacts attributed to landfills by preventing the migration of leachate and landfill gases into the environment and groundwater. Numerous researchers have assessed the suitability of typical Malaysian residual soils as clay liners in an engineered landfill. However, previous studies evaluated their suitability for liner application using just tap water as the saturating and permeating fluids, which is far from being representative of the field conditions. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the suitability of two residual soil deposits of Kenny Hill rock formation as liner materials in engineered landfills by conducting a series of geotechnical tests using both tap water and municipal solid wastes leachate as saturating and permeating fluids. Results of the study indicated that soil A complied with all the requirements for liner utilization in terms of fines content, plasticity index, hydraulic conductivity, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). On the other hand, soil B failed to meet the requirements in terms of fines content and UCS. When leachate was used as permeating fluid, there was a reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of both soil samples. Nonetheless, increased UCS and reduced Atterberg limit were observed for both soil samples when saturated with leachate. Based on the results, it is fair to conclude that soil A is more suitable for liner utilization relative to soil B.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DAM BREAK FLOW AROUND SEVERAL BLOCKAGES CONFIGURATIONS Download Article

    Muhammad Syahril Badri Kusuma, Tia Setiawati and Mohammad Farid
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (26-32)
    • No of Download = 418

    Abstract

    close

    Dam break flood flow might lead to a very high risk of a disaster causing massive destructions either in life or property. It is more complicated if it occurs in an urban area due to the appearance of buildings that block the flow. Modeling is a tool that is common use to study dam break flood propagation to provide information of flow characteristics and mechanism of a dam break. Experimental model has been preferable due to difficulties in obtaining field data during flood flow. In this study, an experimental model with several configurations of blockages to simulate dam break flow in the urban area is developed. The purpose is to investigate flow properties in term of flow depth and flow velocity due to dam break flood flow in the urban area in term of mitigation plan and to provide a valuable tool for numerical model calibration and validation for the numerical model. The model is developed for no building case and several configurations of blockages. Flow depth and flow velocity at several points are observed to investigate flow properties. Based on the results, it is found that a significant change in water depth occurs in t = 5 seconds until t = 7 seconds. Flow velocity is also found to increase uniformly at all observed area. It is also found that energy in one building configuration is much bigger than in no building case. Furthermore, flow occurred in the no building model is subcritical and supercritical flow while in one building configuration, the flow is subcritical flow.

  6. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RICE HUSK ASH AS STABILIZING AGENT OF EXPANSIVE SOIL Download Article

    Mary Ann Q. Adajar, Christian James P. Aquino, Joselito D. dela Cruz Ii, Clutch Patrick H. Martin, and Denzel Keith G. Urieta
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (33-40)
    • No of Download = 368

    Abstract

    close

    Expansive soils pose a significant threat to structures due to its ability to cause damage from the footing up to the superstructure. This paper intends to provide an economic and environment-friendly method of mitigating the swelling potential of expansive soil by replacing a set volume of expansive soil with rice husk ash (RHA) – an abundant waste material produced by the biomass power plant. The swelling behavior of the soil mixtures was analyzed through its expansion index obtained via ASTM D4829. Results of the tests revealed that the mixture containing 20% and 25% RHA are considered non-expansive soil. Soil stability parameters were also obtained through the tests specified by ASTM D4609. The tests on the soil stability parameters revealed that soil-RHA mixtures exhibited an improvement in the Atterberg limits which garnered a 36.32% decrease in the liquid limit and 64.75% decrease in the plasticity index; however, a decline was observed in the compaction characteristics and the unconfined compressive strength. Soil-RHA mixtures experienced a maximum decrease of 230 kg/m3 in the maximum dry density and a 40.17% increase in the optimum moisture content. The unconfined compressive strength of treated soils yielded a decrease of as much as 194.2 kPa as well as a decrease in the cohesion development of the soil. The results revealed that while an increase of the RHA content reduces the swelling potential of soil, other strength parameters such as the compaction behavior and the unconfined compressive strength of the soil declines.

  7. CYCLIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOILS BY MIXING RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT MATERIAL Download Article

    Shoji Yokohama and Atsuko Sato
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (41-47)
    • No of Download = 352

    Abstract

    close

    Reusing of recycled asphalt pavement material (RAP) as an engineering material for ground improvement is important for reducing construction or maintenance costs. Reusing of RAP for ground improvement and ground protection seems available for reduction of construction cost because there are much stocks of RAP. In this study, it is indicated that the cyclic mechanical properties of the sandy soil improved by mixing RAP. In order to obtain the fundamental results for the effect of mixing RAP on the improvement of cyclic behavior, the series of cyclic undrained triaxial tests were conducted. From the test results, it is shown that the cyclic strength of sandy soil - RAP mixture was greater than the cyclic strength without RAP case. It is also shown that the accumulation speed of excess pore water pressure at sandy soil - RAP mixture is slower than that without RAP mixing. In addition, the mechanism for cyclic mechanical properties of sandy soil - RAP mixture is also suggested.

  8. QUEZON CITY SOIL PROFILE REFERENCE Download Article

    Joenel G. Galupino and Jonathan R. Dungca
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (48-54)
    • No of Download = 340

    Abstract

    close

    The City of Quezon City is one of the highly urbanized cities and one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the Philippines, many local and foreign investors are discovering it as a cost-effective business location; many infrastructures were built to serve these growing business hub. Every infrastructure project constructed rests on the ground, without knowing the soil interaction underground, safety is at risk. Thus, this study aims to generate the soil profile of Quezon City using machine learning, specifically, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm; k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) measured the similarity of soil types in terms of distance. The soil profile generated by the model was delineated using computer-aided design (CAD); it was discovered that the underground of the Quezon City is usually dominated by tuff. The generated soil profile will not only serve engineers to decide what type of foundations to be used for a particular site but will also be used for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) planning to mitigate ground related disasters; government zoning and policymakers for land use purposes; for real estate industry as their initial reference before investing. The nearest neighbor algorithm model used in the generation of the soil profiles was cross-validated to ensure the predictions are adequate.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL C-SECTIONS USING COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Download Article

    Bernardo A. Lejano and Eyen James D. Ledesma
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (55-61)
    • No of Download = 394

    Abstract

    close

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) as a structural material has gained popularity because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. In the Philippines, the demand to use it as the structural member has increased recently. However, verification of its actual strength is not extensively studied in the country. To conform to the design standards of the local code, the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP), CFS as a structural member are required to be ductile. However, it was discovered that CFS with higher strength but with brittle behavior is also being commercially distributed in the country. The objective of this study is to investigate the flexural strength of CFS made of these steel materials with the use of the computational and experimental method. The computational method covers the calculation of the theoretical flexural strength based on the NSCP provisions while the experimental method covers the actual flexural strength based on the four-point bend test. A total of 24 specimens of back-to-back C-sections of different thicknesses and lengths were tested. Additional finite element method (FEM) calculation was also conducted using ANSYS. The main failure modes were distortional buckling (DB) and lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). For the ductile CFS, DB and LTB were observed in 86.1% and 13.9% of specimen population, respectively. While for the brittle CFS, DB and LTB were observed in 75.0% and 25.0%, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the computational strengths were lower than the experimental strengths. The FEM analysis results were close to the experimental results thus validating the experimental results.

  10. EFFECTS OF THRUST PROTECTING METHOD FOR BURIED PIPE USING GEOGRID GABION OF DIFFERENT SIZES Download Article

    Hiroyuki Araki and Daiki Hirakawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (62-68)
    • No of Download = 385

    Abstract

    close

    On the bend of a buried water supply pipeline, the thrust force is applied to the ground. A concrete block is typically installed at the bend section of the pipeline as a thrust protection measure. However, a concern exists that the stability of the concrete block might not be maintained when the ground around the concrete block liquefies during an earthquake. In this study, thrust protection using a gabion composed of a geogrid basket and gravel as a pressure-receiving structure to protect against thrust force is proposed. Further, the effects of this method are evaluated by conducting model experiments. In the model experiments, a constant load simulated thrust force was applied laterally to a buried pipe model in the model ground where the internal effective stress was decreased by increasing hydraulic gradient stepwise. Gabion models of several widths were placed on the ground in the direction of the thrust force. Results revealed that the gabion stabilizes the pipe even when the effective pressure of the surrounding ground decreases significantly and that the behavior of gabions in the ground is affected by their width. Moreover, the requirements for a gabion to improve a pipe’s stability will be discussed herein, based on the results of several test cases.

  11. MODIFIED NATURAL FIBER ON SOIL STABILIZATION WITH LIME AND ALKALINE ACTIVATION TREATED MARINE CLAY Download Article

    Fatin Amirah binti Kamaruddin, Bujang B.K Huat, Vivi Anggraini and Haslinda Nahazanan
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (69-75)
    • No of Download = 384

    Abstract

    close

    Geotechnical structures and foundations that are constructed on clay soils normally experience serviceability and structural quandaries due to wetting. Traditional and mechanical binder have been widely used for soil stabilization recently in order to improve clay soil. In this study, a comparison was made between lime and alkaline activation treated tropical marine soil reinforced with modified natural fiber. Treatment of soil with lime and alkaline activation show an excessively brittle behavior that influences the stability of the structure. For this purpose, the inclusion of natural biodegradable material which is coir fiber is needed as it enhanced the tensile strength of the soil matrix. The mechanical properties of unconfined compression test were carried out on tropical marine soil stabilized with lime (5%) and alkali activation with class F fly ash as a precursor (60%) with and without fiber inclusions at different curing times. Based on the test results, the inclusion of modified natural fiber in lime and alkaline activation treated tropical marine clay increased the strength of the soil matrix.

  12. ROLE DIFFERENCE AMONG RIVERS AFFECTED BY VOLCANIC ACTIVITIES OF MT. ONTAKE FOR WATER QUALITY OF THE NIGORIGAWA RIVER Download Article

    Akiko Usami, Yoshitaka Matsumoto and Akihiko Yagi1 and Eiji Iwatsuki
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (76-81)
    • No of Download = 372

    Abstract

    close

    To understand the influence of volcanic activities of Mt. Ontake on the Nigorigawa River, the distribution of elements contained in the water of the Nigorigawa was examined. The Nigorigawa has several tributaries such as the Akagawa River, the Shirakawa River, the Denjogawa River, and small streams. Sampling stations were located in the Nigorigawa and upstream rivers of it. These water samples were analyzed by the ICPE. The Akagawa and the Denjogawa show anomalous water quality. The amounts of elements in the water of the Akagawa are far more than those in other rivers (ex. S: 138 mgL-1, Fe: 34 mgL-1, Al: 33 mgL-1). The water quality of the Akagawa shown above is consistent with characteristic features in the volcanic zone. In contrast, the water of the Denjogawa contains large amounts of Na (46 mgL-1). It is likely due to dissolution from the sediment of Mt. Ontake, because the Denjogawa has a source in the Ontake Landslide, which was caused by the 1984 Nagano Prefecture Earthquake. It was found that the Akagawa and the Denjogawa play a role different from each other for forming the water quality of the Nigorigawa (the Akagawa: eruption, the Denjogawa: earthquake).

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 SEEPS TO COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS OF SHIKINE ISLAND IN JAPAN AS INDICATED BY GEOCHEMISTRY ANALYSES OF SEAFLOOR SEDIMENTS Download Article

    Hirosuke Hirano, Koetsu Kon, Masa-aki Yoshida, Ben P. Harvey and Davin H. E. Setiamarga
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (82-89)
    • No of Download = 257

    Abstract

    close

    Recently, two shallow CO2 seeps were described in Ashitsuki and Mikama Bay (Shikine Island, Japan). These sites were deemed to have potentials for studying the impacts of ocean acidification. Here, we report geochemistry analyses of seawater and seafloor sediments collected from the shallow coasts on and around the two CO2 seeps. Seawater analyses indicated that shallow waters in the area share similar acidic characteristics (e.g. Avg. pH = ca. 7.1), supporting the result of a previous study. Next, the sediments from all sampling loci also share similar properties (Avg. Fe:Si = 0.043; Avg. organic content = 1.26%; Avg. relative Si content = 75.25%). However, sediments from Matsugashitamiyabi hot spring, which is located near the Ashitsuki seep, showed high Fe:Si ratio (1.250) when compared to other loci. This is most likely a local phenomenon, where iron accumulates in the sediment by the precipitation of rust produced through the mixing of FeS from the hot spring and carbonated seawater of the nearby CO2 seeps. We also compared seawater (e.g. Avg. pH = 8.3) and sediments (Avg. Fe: Si = 0.126; Avg. organic content = 2.06%; Avg. Si = 69.06%) of Hidaka Port in central Wakayama (as a standard sample of coastal surface water environment), to the Shikine Island samples excluding the Matsugashitamiyabi hot spring samples. The differences in characteristics (i.e. lower seawater pH and lower Avg. Fe:Si ratio of the latter) were probably caused by CO2 seep influence, and indicate that the influence of the hot spring water to the sediment of both CO2 seeps was minimal, or probably none. Accordingly, these seep sites are useful for future studies on the effects of ocean acidification on sea floor sediment composition, and its implication to biodiversity and the ecosystem.

  14. EVALUATION OF FILLER MATERIAL BEHAVIOR IN PRE-BORED PILE FOUNDATION SYSTEM DUE TO SLOW CYCLIC LATERAL LOADING IN SANDY SOIL Download Article

    Adhitya Yoga Purnama, Noriyuki Yasufuku and Ahmad Rifa’i
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (90-96)
    • No of Download = 355

    Abstract

    close

    Maintenance of a bridge structure is still the main issue in Indonesia due to the high cost of maintaining the elastomeric bearing especially in the remote area. Integral abutment bridges are becoming popular because the elastomeric bearings are eliminated, which can reduce the maintenance costs. Pre-bored pile foundation system is a typical foundation for integral bridge abutment to supports lateral displacement due to thermal expansion of the girder bridge. Pre-bored pile foundation system can be used to increase the pile flexibility using a pre-bored hole that filled with elastic materials such as bentonite slurry, loose sand or gravel. Some of the integral abutment bridges foundation design has proposed, but the previous studies only focus on the structural system, the soil characteristic behavior and soil response due to this system are still rarely explained. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the effects of cyclic loads on the filler material inside the pre-bored ring. The soil behavior for ground soil and filler material due to cyclic lateral loading were performed using macro-scale testing. In this paper, a series of two-way lateral cyclic loading tests were performed to evaluate the effect of slow cyclic lateral loading on the filler material behavior of the pre-bored pile foundation system. The experimental setup is explained in details, and the results are presented in the form of normalized bending moment and maximum lateral capacity charts against the number of cycles. Moreover, the densification effect of the filler material inside the pre-bored system due to the cyclic loading was evaluated.

  15. VOLUME CHANGE BEHAVIOR OF SEA WATER EXPOSED COAL ASH USING HYPERBOLIC MODEL Download Article

    Erica Elice S. Uy, Mary Ann Q. Adajar and Jonathan R. Dungca
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (97-103)
    • No of Download = 349

    Abstract

    close

    The Philippines greatly relies on coal-fired power plants as a source of electricity. These power plants produce a by-product or waste material called coal ash. In recent years, the country has been experiencing continuous urbanization. As a result, there is an increase in the demand for electricity consumption. This can also result in an increase in production of coal ash. There are several studies that suggest the potential of coal ash as a construction material. In this study, the coal ash was exposed to seawater. In order to investigate the potential of coal ash as a construction material to structures that will be exposed to the sea. Consolidated drained triaxial test was performed considering the following level of exposure namely, no exposure, immediate exposure, and prolonged exposure. A hyperbolic model was used to model the stress-dependent volume change behavior of the material towards sea water. In the model, the Poisson's ratio parameters were determined. The tangent value of Poisson's ratio and its relationship with the applied stressed was evaluated.

  16. LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS OF VERIFICATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE Download Article

    Keita Sugito, Tetsuya Okano and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (104-109)
    • No of Download = 408

    Abstract

    close

    It is widely recognized that the Kansai area will be attacked by a plate boundary type huge earthquake within these 30 years. When the earthquake happens, the ground with underground structure, like a tunnel, would be struck by severe liquefaction disasters. Therefore, we tried to analyze the ground behavior using LIQCA, which is well used for liquefaction analysis in Japan. The input earthquake motion is the seismic standard spectrum I which is commonly used in Japan. The ground has the underground structure, so we investigated not only the liquefaction phenomenon of the ground itself but also the behavior of the underground structure. Furthermore, we focused on the boundary condition between the tunnel and the adjacent ground. Three patterns are prepared for this boundary condition. First, the boundary condition between the tunnel and the ground is free in the vertical direction and fixed in the horizontal direction. Second, this boundary condition is fixed in the vertical direction and the horizontal direction is fixed. Third, the joint elements are installed between the tunnel and the ground. Under each condition, we examine the effect of liquefaction on the tunnel. Also, we compare the three patterns and verified realistic damage.

  17. CALCULATION FORMULA FOR PULLOUT RESISTANCE EXERTED BY OPEN-WING-TYPE GROUND ANCHOR Download Article

    Kota Kono, Akihisa Nakahashi and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (110-115)
    • No of Download = 401

    Abstract

    close

    Ground anchor systems (also known as earth anchor systems) are installed to stabilize structures or slopes by connecting a structure or a slope to the anchorage zone using the frictional force between grouting material and surrounding ground. However, the pullout resistance of anchors decreases over long periods of time, causing the anchor to finally pulled out from the ground owing to the decreasing friction between grouting material and surrounding ground. An open-wing type (OW) anchor has been developed by our research group as a new type of earth anchor system to address the issues associated with the currently existing methods. The method uses open wings to exert the pullout resistance. Our research group conducts experiments to examine the effects of a number of wings, root depth, and type of ground on the pullout resistance exerted by OW anchors. The experimental results show the reduction rate of maximum pullout resistance exerted by OW anchor compared to that exerted by disk does not change with the values of relative density and root depth under similar ground conditions. In this study, a formula to calculate the pullout resistance exerted by OW anchor is proposed. The developed formula is based on the formula used for calculating the maximum pullout resistance exerted by a disk as an earth anchor model. The proposed formula relies on the results of experiments to evaluate the pullout resistance exerted by OW anchor.

  18. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM SIX HYGROPHYTE SPECIES ON ACTIVITIES OF P. JAPONICA Download Article

    Taizo Uchida, Teruo Arase, Yohei Sato and Daisuke Hayasaka
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (116-123)
    • No of Download = 185

    Abstract

    close

    Little has been reported on ecological characteristics of Phragmites japonica Steud. (Poaceae), perhaps due to its narrow distribution in the Far East. In this study, therefore, allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts (5.0 g L-1) from leaves or stems of six hygrophytes, Typha latifolia L., Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Phragmites japonica Steud. and Scrirpus tabernaemontani Gmel., on the activities of P. japonica seed and epigeal stolon were assayed under laboratory conditions, and growth after transplanting was also evaluated. All aqueous extracts from six hygrophytes produced no inhibition on seed germination. The radicle length of the seedlings, however, was inhibited by treatment with aqueous extracts from leaves of P. australis, L. salicaria and P. arundinacea (35.5-57.2% of untreated control). Further, these inhibitory effects on the radicle length of the seedlings are likely caused by some kind of allelochemicals, based on the lack of effect with preparations of the aqueous extracts on a polymeric absorbent (Amberlite XAD-4 resin). For epigeal stolon activity, no negative effects were observed for aqueous extracts of any of the hygrophytes. Dry weights of the above- and below-ground organs formed from epigeal stolon also reached 7.3 times of those of seedlings after the transplanting.

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF SULTAN ABU BAKAR DAM RELEASE USING HEC-RAS Download Article

    Siti Multazimah Mohamad Faudzi, Ismail Abustan, Muhammad Azraie Abdul Kadir, Muhammad Khairi A.Wahab and Mohd Firdaus Abdul Razak
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (124-131)
    • No of Download = 391

    Abstract

    close

    Dams are constructed as water storage to compensate for fluctuations in the catchment area and to generate electricity. However, uncontrollable amount of discharges released from the gated spillways of the dam would impact the downstream area. On October 23, 2013, floods occurred in downstream of Sungai Bertam probably due to a huge volume of discharges were released from Sultan Abu Bakar (SAB) dam. Impacts of that flood, three people were confirmed dead and nearly 100 houses destroyed or under water while over 100 vehicles badly damaged. Thus, a study on various maximum discharges released on the behavior of flow along 4 km and 200 m width downstream river was conducted. The objectives in this study were to evaluate flood inundation area and to produce flood hazard map which able to predict risk area of flooding. The computer simulation was done to analyze various maximum discharges released from the gated spillway by using two dimensional HEC-RAS which is constructed by US Army Corp with the aid of a high resolution of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. The amount of water release used in the simulation were 10, 25, 30, 50, 100, 230 and 300 m3/s based on recommendation dam release by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). The result shows that the safest maximum release was 50m3/s in order to avoid inundation happen. This study will also help authorities to control the amount of maximum discharge level allowed from the dam. Besides, it can give awareness to local residents of risk area on flood wave travel time.

  20. 3D MODEL-BASED IMAGE REGISTRATION FOR CHANGE DETECTION IN HISTORICAL STRUCTURES VIA UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE Download Article

    Apichat Buatik, Luqman Ali and Krisada Chaiyasarn
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (132-138)
    • No of Download = 381

    Abstract

    close

    Visual inspection is a common technique to detect and examine the state of health of the structural system. Periodic inspection is carried out to determine if anomalies, such as cracks and surface paint, found in previous visits have changed in appearance over time. The image-based change detection techniques require accurate geometrical and photometrical corrections in pre-processing steps to minimize errors. Although several techniques have been proposed to remove geometrical errors, they still fail to align image correctly, which often results in inaccuracy in a change detection system. In this paper, a change detection system is proposed to tackle this problem. The system acquired images via an unmanned aerial vehicle. Then, the acquired images were manually processed to identify damages, such as cracks, which were used to guide a drone to obtain more images of damage areas for monitoring purpose. The images were then used to obtain a 3D surface model and camera calibration through Structure from Motion (SfM), which were used in the image synthesis technique to obtain an image with identical camera parameters as a queried image for accurate geometrical adjustment. The synthesized images were used to compare with the queried image to see if there were changes between them. In this research project, it was showed that the drone can be used to monitor problematic areas and the image synthetic technique via 3D modeling can be used in geometrical registration to improve a change detection system.

  21. DESIGN OF ANCHORED DIAPHRAGM WALL FOR DEEP EXCAVATION Download Article

    Askar Zhussupbekov, Abdulla Omarov and Gulzhanat Tanyrbergenova
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (139-144)
    • No of Download = 369

    Abstract

    close

    High-rise buildings pose new challenges for engineers, especially in the field of calculations and design of above-ground structures, bases and foundations. Some consideration the anticipated responses to adjacent buildings during construction are presented. This will require the design professional to survey the condition of the adjacent properties to understand their present condition and fragility, establish acceptable limits, conduct soil-structure analyses of various support systems and develop limits on their respective movements, and develop a monitoring strategy. This paper shows the technology for support excavation structures as shoring system for 1000 mm thick diaphragm wall, which is supported with four layers of pre-stressed anchorages. The shoring system calculations had been designed by PLAXIS 2D, which can assess in very detail the deformations and settlements in the soil. The basement walls are a formed with reinforced concrete diaphragm wall panels, which are supported with ground anchors. The basement slab is to be a pile-supported raft, which is a made up of discrete sections to accommodate thermal and lateral movements. These numerical methods were a carried out within the investigation of the interaction of anchored diaphragm wall of high-rise buildings with soils in the problematic ground conditions of Astana. Recent advances in monitoring by using 3D laser-scanning technologies and acquiring quality information about built environments using embedded and other advanced sensors give to engineers a real picture of soil-structure interaction. This information is combined with the design model to create an integrated model, which is a dynamically updated during the construction period.

  22. SEISMIC RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF LIFELINE: A CASE STUDY ON THE WATER NETWORK SYSTEM OF BIÑAN CITY, LAGUNA Download Article

    Rainier Lawrence A. Valdez and Lessandro Estelito O. Garciano
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (145-150)
    • No of Download = 395

    Abstract

    close

    Lifelines are essential networks and it is vital for these network systems to remain properly functional during or after destructive earthquakes. In the Philippine geographical context, the West Valley Fault which traverses Metro Manila is a seismic threat capable of producing a maximum magnitude of 7.2. In this study, the reliability of LagunaWater network system was assessed under earthquake loads due to West Valley Fault. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was utilized to estimate the seismic hazard of the network area. Recorded earthquake history from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology was used as part of the seismic analysis. The analysis estimated the ground motion values by using a similar Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) used in the latest Philippine Earthquake Model (PEM). Seismic hazard analysis shows that the earthquake hazards for the site are peak ground accelerations of 0.52g and 0.62g for return periods of 500 and 2500 years respectively. Using the ground motion intensity, ground strain value was attained ranging from 0.02% to 0.16% at scales of 0.1g to 1.0g. Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the probability of damage. Using the unscaled peak ground acceleration, the probability of minor damage ranges from 15% to 19%. Given a 2500-year return period, seismic hazard analysis resulted to a peak ground acceleration of 0.62g which has a 20% probability for pipes to experience minor damage. Subsequently, the entire network system has a 1% probability of minor damage given the same return period of seismic hazard.

  23. PASSENGER BEHAVIORAL MAPPING AND STATION FACILITIES DESIGN AT COMMUTER LINE TRAIN STATION (CASE: TANGERANG STATION, INDONESIA) Download Article

    Ahmad Zubair, Lita Sari Barus and Jachrizal Soemabrata
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (151-156)
    • No of Download = 274

    Abstract

    close

    there were still many Commuter Line passengers who did not aware of using the station facilities. This led to a "dilemma" for station managers to design station facilities that meet the needs of passengers. Therefore, the research was focused on the behavior of Commuter Line passengers based on the deviation that occurred. A behavior mapping approach was conducted to understand passenger behavior and its influence on the design of the train station facility. The research was instrumental case study, mean study of the case for external reasons was not merely an intention to know it’s the origin, but the case was only an instrument to explained and proved the existing theory. By mapping the passenger behavior, station managers at least got an overview of the passenger’s pathway, favorite places to wait for trains, crowded places during peak time, platform capacity, railway crossing capacity, the availability and lack of a primary, secondary and tertiary facilities. The research results told us many stories. The results showed some explanation about passenger movement behavior based on three components of station zone: arrival zone, main facility zone and platform zone. The conclusion of the research explained that in designing a station facility, the station managers have not fully understood the passenger behavior. In another way, they should pay attention to that vital aspect.

  24. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK EVALUATION METHOD CONSIDERING AFTERSHOCKS Download Article

    Seiichiro Fukushima, Hiroyuki Watabe and Harumi Yashiro
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (157-164)
    • No of Download = 385

    Abstract

    close

    As shown in 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, it has become an issue that the damage or loss by aftershocks is greater than those by main shock. This situation is caused by the following two facts; the ground motion intensity by aftershocks are larger than that by main shock depending on the locations of aftershocks, and capacity of buildings is reduced by main shock. This paper proposes the methodology to probabilistically evaluate risks, such as loss or damage rate, considering the aftershocks. The methodology employed is the multi-event approach in which numerous events are generated with their location, shape, magnitude and occurrence probability so that the risk of not only a single building, but portfolio of buildings can be evaluated. This paper adds two features on the method; one is generating the conditional aftershock events, and the other is reducing the capacity of buildings reflecting damage status by main shock event. Model buildings located in the area where the effects of aftershocks cannot be ignored is used for application simulation with three conditions; no aftershocks, followed by aftershocks without capacity degradation, and followed by aftershocks with capacity degradation. The deference in the risks are evaluated by the risk curves. Through the simulation it is concluded that the proposed method can evaluate the risks considering aftershocks adequately.

  25. TEMPORAL CHANGE OF SEISMIC LOAD BY PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS WITH RENEWAL PROCESS Download Article

    Takayuki Hayashi and Harumi Yashiro
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (165-170)
    • No of Download = 397

    Abstract

    close

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out during the seismic design of structures, and a seismic load corresponding to a certain return period is calculated. In PSHA, there are cases where a renewal process is adopted for some large specific earthquakes. When the probability of the occurrence of an earthquake increases within a certain period, the seismic load based on PSHA also increases. Here, we study the temporal change of the seismic hazard and the influence of the epistemic uncertainty on the occurrence probability of a large earthquake around Japan. When calculating the occurrence probability of earthquakes around the Nankai Trough and the Sagami Trough, the occurrence history is not clearly known, hence, a large epistemic uncertainty arises about the parameters of the Brownian Passage Time (BPT) distribution, such as the average recurrence interval, and the aperiodicity parameter alpha. In order to consider such uncertainty, we employ the Monte Carlo method with a large number of input parameters to grasp the temporal change of the occurrence probability. In addition, the calculated occurrence probability is incorporated into the seismic hazard analysis. Here, we conduct a risk assessment for sample sites and discuss the notion that the influence of the epistemic uncertainty on seismic loads varies greatly from one region to another.

  26. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF CES COMPOSITE COLUMNS WITH FRC USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Download Article

    Fauzan, Ruddy Kurniawan and Zev Al Jauhari
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (171-177)
    • No of Download = 380

    Abstract

    close

    To simplify and reduce the cost in construction works for SRC structures, the new composite structural systems consisting of only steel and concrete, the concrete encased steel (CES) structures, have been developed. An experimental study on CES column using fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) panel has been carried out by one of the authors. In this paper, a 3D nonlinear finite element (FE) model is developed to study the response and predict the seismic performance of CES using FRC panel columns subjected to lateral cyclic loads. The column was modeled using solid elements and analyzed by using ANSYS APDL v.14. The model was validated with previous test results and was used as a reference for the parametric study. The parameters considered in the study was the tensile strength of FRC. The analytical results obtained from the FE analysis is able to accurately simulate the behavior of the CES columns on the experimental study. The CES column using full FRC is also modeled in order to know the influence of the full FRC on the CES composite column. Numerical results show that CES using FRC panel and CES using full FRC have an excellent seismic performance with a stable pinching and spindle shape hysteresis characteristic, respectively. Moreover, the results of the parametric study show that the tensile strength of FRC has great influence on the seismic behavior of the CES column, with the increment of flexural capacity of 5% to 17% by rising of FRC tensile strength from 8 to 16 MPa.

  27. INFLUENCE OF RAILINGS STIFFNESS ON WHEEL LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN THREE- AND FOUR-LANE CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGES Download Article

    Ghassan Fawaz, Mohammad Abou Nouh, Mounir Mabsout and Kassim Tarhini
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (178-183)
    • No of Download = 359

    Abstract

    close

    The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Load and Resistance Factor Design (AASHTO LRFD) do not account for the presence of railings in the analysis or design of highway bridges. This paper presents a follow-up parametric investigation of the influence of railing stiffness on the wheel load distribution in simply-supported, one-span, three- and four-lane reinforced concrete slab bridges using the finite-element analysis (FEA). A total of 48 bridge cases are modeled using refined 3D FEA and bridge parameters such as span lengths, slab widths, and railings that were varied within practical ranges. Various railings stiffness were considered to be built integrally with the bridge deck and placed on both edges of the concrete slabs. The FEA wheel load distribution and bending moments are compared with reference bridge slabs without railings as well as to the AASHTO design procedures. According to the FEA results, the presence of railings reduces the longitudinal bending moment in the concrete slabs by 25% to 60% depending on the stiffness of the railings in one- and two-lane reinforced concrete bridges. However, when considering three- and four-lane bridges, the presence of railings reduced the longitudinal bending moment in the concrete slab by a range of 10% to 32% depending on the stiffness of railings. The results of this investigation will assist bridge engineers in better evaluating the load carrying capacities of multi-lane concrete slab bridges using 3D FEA and account for the contribution of railings. The presence of railings can also be considered a possible alternative for strengthening existing concrete slab bridges.

  28. THE SIMPLE METHOD OF SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY PROFILE FROM EXPLOSION SOURCE IN SURIN, THAILAND Download Article

    Pithan Pairojn
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (184-189)
    • No of Download = 352

    Abstract

    close

    This study aimed to propose a correlation of shear wave velocity (Vs) derived from explosives using the Simple Method (SM). The SM is a technique for surveying shear wave velocity and is used to analyze vibration records at the surface through an established dispersion curve. The seismic wave was generated below ground surface. The shear wave emanates from the source is detected by a geophone at the ground surface and measure traveling time of shear wave for calculated shear wave velocity to estimate soil layer. The tested site was in Surin Province, northern Thailand (large-scale underground petroleum seismic survey area). In the present study, the SM technique was adopted to evaluate the shear wave velocity profile from underground explosives. The results showed that the SM agreed with those obtained from the Downhole Seismic Test (DH). The DH is geophysical surveys for determining shear wave velocity. Required parameters were then obtained through calibration with the results from the DH test. Subsequently, the shear wave velocity profiles from SM using explosives in the test area were then obtained. The SM has been used for vibration and shear wave velocity analysis of soil.

  29. ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES FOR ALKALI-SILICA REACTION DIAGNOSIS IN MASS CONCRETE STRUCTURE Download Article

    Suvimol Sujjavanich, Thanawat Meesak, Krit Won-in and Viggo
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (190-195)
    • No of Download = 337

    Abstract

    close

    This paper reported the results of several techniques used to diagnose Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) distress in concrete. Two screening tests looked for the appearance of the fluoresced gel of uranyl acetate treated samples and the changed color areas of the chemical staining treated samples. The results agreed well with the expansion of the cored samples in warm water and in NaOH solution and also supported the previously measured expansion in the field. The petrographic analysis found many microcracks with ASR gel filling in cement paste, interface zone (ITZ) between aggregates and paste, and internal cracks in aggregates. Microstructural analysis revealed the characteristics of slow reactive aggregates and two forms of products; amorphous gel with shrinkage cracks in cement paste cracks and in the ITZ, and cryptocrystalline reaction products consisting of plate-formed crystals, rosettes and globular found mostly in internal cracks of aggregates and air voids. The SEM/EDS analysis differentiate reactive from non-reactive aggregates. Ettringite crystals were also observed lining the air voids and some cracks but there was no evidence linking it to the cause of continued expansion. Fine grain black quartzite within the aggregates and sericite were identified as the cause of ASR The combination of different techniques effectively identified ASR as the primary cause of deterioration and the continued expansion of the investigated structure.

  30. TIME INTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF SOEKARNO-HATTA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (SHIA) TRAIN WITH SKYTRAIN Download Article

    Jachrizal Sumabrata, Dane Viarsyah and Novia Handayani Kinan
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (196-202)
    • No of Download = 331

    Abstract

    close

    The sustainability of transportation systems in Jakarta is under threat from climate change. Better integration and planning of public transportation is an alternative to support land transportation and to solve the congestion problem when heading to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. Hence, PT Railink, PT Angkasa Pura II, PT Kereta Api Indonesia with its BUMN (State Owned Enterprises) synergic built rail-based transportation called Airport Train. Moreover, Airport Train is connected with Skytrain in an integrated building as a transferring point. This study analyzes the time integration to travel using the Airport Train from BNI City Station to the Skytrain to get the passenger destination terminal by observing additional time factors in the integration building vice versa on the Skytrain – Airport Train trips. The results of the analysis in the form of Train Travel Charts show both on Airport Train - Skytrain trip and Skytrain - Airport Train trip concerning the integration factors, there are several schedule conditions that require passengers to depart to the next Airport Train or Skytrain, and it worse due to disintegration each other at certain times.

Pages