Articles

  1. THE EFFECT OF FGD GYPSUM ADDITION IN THE MIXTURE OF SHOTCRETE USED BOTTOM ASH AS FINE AGGREGATE Download Article

    Pisut Rodvinij, Pitiwat Wattanachai and Sattaya Chaiwithee
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-8)
    • No of Download = 428

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    Shotcrete used for temporary or permanent protection of slope in Mae Moh mine that may deteriorate when exposed to the weather change. In order to improve the efficiency and reduced cost of shotcrete, by-product materials from Mae Moh power plant area good alternative to use in the mixture. This study investigated the influence of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum on the properties of shotcrete used bottom ash as fine aggregate. The mixture of shotcrete was a combination of Portland cement type 1 and bottom ash in a ratio of 1:3. The addition of FGD gypsum in the mixture was 4%, 8% and 12% by weight of cement. Water to cement ratio was 0.6. The results demonstrated the slump flow of shotcrete decreased withFGD gypsum increment. However, the setting time of shotcrete was longer with FGD gypsum increment. The addition of FGD gypsum in the mixture at 12% can be reduced the shrinkage approximately 100 microstrains. The addition of FGD gypsum at 4% in the mixture can be developed the compressive strength approximately 8-20% of shotcrete without FGD gypsum. Moreover, the compressive strength and durability of shotcrete mixed with FGD gypsum at 4% could be able to give the highest strength. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and durability of shotcrete tend to decrease with FGD gypsum increment when the mixture containing FGD gypsum exceeds 4%. In conclusion, the addition of FGD gypsum at 4% in the mixture was the most efficient to develop the properties of shotcrete.

  2. USE OF DRY MIXING METHOD IN FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER AS A STABILIZER FOR DREDGED SOIL Download Article

    Jonathan R. Dungca, Kimberly D. Ang, Aila Mae L. Isaac, John Joshua R. Joven and Ma. Beatrice T. Sollano
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (9-14)
    • No of Download = 421

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    This study aims to improve the properties of dredged soil obtained from a river in the Philippines. Different percentages of fly-ash based geopolymer, namely 10%, 20%, 30% were used using a dry mixing method to determine the optimum mix. The procedures based on the ASTM standards were conducted to determine the index properties namely Grain Size Distribution Curve (ASTM D422), Specific Gravity (ASTM D854), Atterberg’s Limits (D4318), and CBR Test (ASTM D1833) and UCS test (ASTM D2166) of untreated soil. While only the California Bearing Ratio Test and UCS test were conducted on the treated soil. The experimental results showed that the fly-ash based geopolymer improved both the CBR index and the Unconfined Compression Strength of the dredged soil. The optimum mix for the soil-geopolymer mix was 30% because it displayed the largest increase in the CBR index (50.23%) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (912.88 Kpa).

  3. THE EFFECT OF BOTTOM ASH REPLACEMENT AS FINE AGGREGATE ON THE PROPERTY OF SHOTCRETE Download Article

    Sattaya Chaiwithee, Pitiwat Wattanachai and Pisut Rodvinij
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (15-20)
    • No of Download = 383

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    This study focused on the effect of the particle size distribution of bottom ash on the engineering properties of shotcrete. Bottom ash was used as fine aggregate replaced fine sand in the mixture of shotcrete. Particle size distribution of aggregate in this test consists of upper boundary and lower boundary of gradation No.1 in ASTM C33 and aggregates passed sieve No.4. The mixture of shotcrete was a combination of Portland cement and fine aggregate is the ratio of 1:3. Water to cement ratio is 0.6. The results demonstrated the compressive strength of shotcrete used bottom ash as an aggregate was less than normal shotcrete approximately 45%. This is due to the particle strength of bottom ash is less than sand. The compressive strength of the samples contains bottom ash passed sieve No.4 gave the highest strength. The compressive strength of the samples contains the lower boundary and upper boundary of gradation No.1 was 7.7 MPa and 10.6 MPa. However, the compressive strength of the samples contains bottom ash passed sieve No.4 was 12.6 MPa. The results of slump flow demonstrated the slump flow of shotcrete tends to increase with the reduction in the particle size of aggregate. Nevertheless, setting time tends to decrease with the reduction in the particle size of aggregate. In conclusion, bottom ash passed sieve No. 4 was the most efficient to use as fine aggregate in the mixture of shotcrete.

  4. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH TREATED RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATES Download Article

    Anthony John Tang, Ichard De Jesus and Alvin Cunanan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (21-27)
    • No of Download = 369

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    Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are sourced from construction demolitions. Weaker concrete, however, often resulted when using RCA as partial or full replacement of coarse aggregates due to old mortar in RCA. Several treatment methods target this old mortar to completely remove it, or enhance its properties, to make RCA suitable for construction use. Three treatment methods were employed in this study: (1) sulfuric acid (SA), (2) silica fume impregnation (SF), and (3) the combination of both sulfuric acid and silica fume (SASF). Experimental investigation showed improvement in the physical properties of RCA compared to untreated RCA, however, statistical tests showed that these improvements were not significant. SA treatment was found to have a detrimental effect on the surface of RCA, which developed a weaker layer of adhered mortar on the RCA surface resulting to a reduction in the mechanical strength of the concrete thus, its strength is lower compared to concrete with SF-treated RCA. SF treatment resulted in improved compressive strength in comparison to untreated RCA concrete, SA-treated RCA concrete, and SASF-treated RCA concrete. It was also observed that 50% RCA replacement in all concrete mixes with treated RCA resulted to highest obtained compressive strength.

  5. DRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS OF COMPACTED KHON KAEN LOESS BY DIRECT SHEAR TEST Download Article

    Atchariya Saengthongthip and Ratamanee Nuntasarn
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (28-34)
    • No of Download = 360

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    This study aims to determine the relationship between drained shear strength and matric suction of compacted Khon Kaen loess soil from a consolidated drained method by a direct shear test. All soil samples were compacted by a modified method at the wet side. The initial dry density of samples was 1.95 t/m3, which was 90% of the maximum dry density and the initial moisture content was 11.85%. The shear rates of 0.005 mm/min, which was determined by a consolidation test. Moreover, soil samples of this study were tested under soaked and unsaturated conditions. Soaked samples were infiltrated with water for seven days in the direct shear box prior to the test. Unsaturated soil samples had been divided into three series. The first series was air-dried for 30 minutes. The second and the third series was air-dried for 60 minutes and 90 minutes, respectively. Then all unsaturated samples were wrapped up for one day to stabilize the moisture content. The results presented that the drained shear strength was increasing with the matric suction, but the slope of graph or the φb value was not constant with matric suction. The slope of graph or the φb value was increasing with net stress. Moreover, the friction angle (φ) was slightly increasing (2 degrees) with matric suction from the saturation regime to the first translation regime. Then the friction angle at the first translation regime was constant of 26 degrees.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED BRICK MASONRY INFILLED REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES WITH A CENTRAL OPENING Download Article

    Maidiawati, Jafril Tanjung, Yulia Hayati, Agus and Hamdeni Medriosa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (35-41)
    • No of Download = 346

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    This paper discusses the experimental results for defining the seismic performance of the brick masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frame with a central opening under lateral static reversed cyclic loading. The influence of the presence of the rebar reinforcements on the opening interface to the masonry is compared to the opening without rebar reinforcement. In this study, six of 1/4 scale-down of single-story singlebay RC frame specimens have been constructed and tested. These specimens included one bare RC frame, one unreinforced brick masonry infilled RC frame, two unreinforced brick masonry infilled RC frames with a central opening and two brick masonry infilled RC frames with a central opening embedded with 2Ø6 horizontal steel reinforcements above and below of the opening. The ratios of opening size to the panel area of the infilled specimens were 25% and 40%. The experimental results confirm that the existence of the opening reduces the stiffness, the lateral strength and energy dissipation of the RC infilled frame system. However, the infilled frames with 25% and 40% opening ratios show better performance compare to bare frame specimen. Although the strengthening by using embedded rebars does not significantly increase the performance of the RC frame system, the brick infill with horizontal reinforcements installed above and below the opening was verified to resist large deformation of masonry infill in out of plane direction.

  7. EFFECT OF BRICK MASONRY INFILLS TO SEISMIC CAPACITY OF INDONESIA MULTI-STORY RC BUILDING Download Article

    Jafril Tanjung, Maidiawati and Aditya Alfajri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (42-48)
    • No of Download = 336

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    This paper discusses an analytical study on the effect of brick masonry infills to seismic capacity of the multi-story reinforced concrete (RC) structures by using the finite element computer codes called STructural Earthquake Response Analysis 3D (STERA 3D). A survived three-story RC building after the 2007 Sumatra earthquake was considered as an analytical model. The building was located in Padang city, West Sumatera, Indonesia. The model was analyzed for pushover and time history analyses. The pushover analysis was conducted followed UBC code and the recorded ground acceleration of 2009 West Sumatra earthquake was applied as input motion in time history analysis. The structural detail and material properties used in the analysis were collected from site investigated building after 2007 Sumatra earthquake. Two analytical RC building models were analyzed and compared in this study, i.e. bare RC frame model and brick masonry infilled RC frame model. The results of the analytical study were compared to the resume of the field observation after the earthquake for the considered building. The analytical results are clearly shown that the brick masonry infills may significantly improve the seismic capacity of the RC building. The RC building could be survived to large ground motion even the building was designed by applying the old Indonesia building code.

  8. THE REPRODUCTION OF NATURAL SEA SLUDGE (HEDORO) USING PRESERVED NATURAL INORGANIC MATTERS Download Article

    Hirosuke Hirano and Davin H. E. Setiamarga
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (49-55)
    • No of Download = 329

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    Comprehensive studies on sea sludge utilization have been hampered by the impossibility of re-obtaining samples with similar characteristics from nature. Previously, we reported the creation of an artificial sludge mimicking the general properties of the natural seafloor sludge of the Funabashi in Chiba. Although this method is useful for recreating sludge with high organic content (Funabashi = 23.61%), it could not be used for recreating sludge with low organic content (e.g. Hidaka in Wakayama = 5.58%), with the high organic content of one of the ingredient, zeolite (7.79%), as a limiting factor. In this study, we focused on the creation of a semi-artificial sludge using inorganic matters obtained from natural sea sludge. Sludge samples from Hidaka Port were collected and burnt at 600ºC to remove their organic content. Artificial organic materials were then added to the obtained inorganic matters, following the method described in our previous study. The resulting semi-artificial sludge mimics the properties of the original sludge. Thus, we revised our previously proposed method of artificial sludge production, by recreating a sludge with low organic content, by utilizing inorganic matters collected from natural samples.

  9. OPTIMIZED PREPARATION OF RICE HUSK ASH (RHA) AS A SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL Download Article

    Carmela Denise Isberto, Krystoffer Lloyd Labra, Jan Marielle B. Landicho and Richard De Jesus
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (56-61)
    • No of Download = 320

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    For years, supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) has been extensively used as an integral component in the production of concrete. This has been motivated by sustainability efforts and reduced environmental impact. Correspondingly, this study intended to develop an appropriate method for the use of rice husk ash (RHA), a by-product of rice husk (RH) which exists abundantly in the Philippines, as a partial replacement to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Different studies have suggested optimal percentage replacement values of RHA, from 10% to 20%, which demonstrated vast improvement in strength of the resulting blended concrete. These optimal values, however, immensely depends on the burning preparation of RHA which adversely affects the amorphous silica components, and therefore the pozzolanic activities of RHA in concrete. In this research, a potential approach to convert RH into optimized and highly reactive RHA by controlled burning and grinding is provided. The effect of RHA in the strength of cement mortar was investigated through the various proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% RHA by weight replacement of cement. Some of the findings are: (i) controlled combustion of RH with temperature ranging from 400 to 600 °C and a slow method of cooling for 6 to 8 hours were some of the critical factors needed to produce high silica content, (ii) concrete containing up to 10% RHA replacement is optimal in maximizing the strength of cement mortar, and (iii) the incorporation of RHA in concrete by 15% and 20% replacement by weight indicated a lower workability.

  10. SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOFT CLAY REINFORCED WITH ENCASED LIME BOTTOM ASH COLUMN (ELBAC) Download Article

    Muzamir Hasan, Kwan Hui Yee, Muhammad Fat-hi Al Juwaini Pahrol and Masayuki Hyodo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (62-66)
    • No of Download = 315

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    Soft clay soils are problematic soil that causes bearing capacity failure and excessive settlement, leading to severe damage to buildings and foundation. In this study, bottom ash is used to replace the natural aggregate while quicklime is used to increase the bonding between bottomash particles. This research is aimed to investigate the role of single encased lime bottom ash column (ELBAC) in improving the shear strength by using laboratory scale model. Kaolin is being used as soil sample while lime bottom ash as the reinforced column and the column is encased with non-woven geotextile. Laboratory tests are conducted to determine the physical properties of bottom ash, kaolin clay, and quicklime sample. Unconfined Compression Test (UCT) also used to test the shear strength of the reinforced kaolin samples. There are 21 kaolin samples being tested in this study and the dimension of the specimen used is 50mm in diameter and 100mm in height. However, there are two different types of the diameter of single lime bottom ash column being used which are 10mm and 16mm. The heights of the column are 60mm, 80mm and 100mm. The improvement of shear strength of single encapsulated lime bottom ash column with area replacement ratio of 4.00% (10mm column diameter) and 10.24% (16mm column diameter) are 43.58%, 50.00%, 49.17% and 38.08%, 42.67%, 32.75% at sample penetration ratio, Hc/Hs of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 respectively. It can be concluded that the shear strength of soft clay could be improved by the installation of the single encapsulated lime bottom ash column.

  11. PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT AERATED GEOPOLYMER SYNTHESIS FROM HIGH-CALCIUM FLY ASH AND ALUMINIUM POWDER Download Article

    Charoenchai Ridtirud and Prinya Chindaprasirt
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (67-75)
    • No of Download = 330

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    In the present work, efforts to decrease unit weighs of the geopolymer mortar around 2,400 kilograms per cubic meter to be lightweight aerated geopolymer which density lower than 1,800 kilograms per cubic meter and study the properties of lightweight aerated geopolymer based on binders composed of high calcium fly ash, and the aluminum powder was studied. Compressive strengths and densities of lightweight geopolymers with aluminium powder contents of 0-0.20%wt, NaOH concentrations of 7.5-12.5 molars, liquid to fly ash ratios of 0.45-0.65, Na2SiO3 to NaOH ratios of 0.33-1.5, sand to fly ash ratio of 0.6-1.4, curing temperatures of 25-100 degree Celsius, and curing period of 1-24 hours. were tested. In addition, SEM and ultrasonic pulse velocity of lightweight aerated geopolymer were determined. Results showed that the lightweight aerated geopolymer high calcium fly ash and aluminum powder with the 28-day compressive strength of 1.2-12.6 MPa and densities of 770-1,560 kilogram per cubic meter, with satisfactory strength, could be made.

  12. THE EFFECT OF BOTTOM ASH AND KAOLIN ON THE STRENGTH OF POOR SUBBASE Download Article

    Chotikan Ratchakrom
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (76-81)
    • No of Download = 338

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    The lateritic soil in this study represented weak subbase for road construction. This induced low compressive strength and poor durability of subbase. This research investigated the use of bottom ash and kaolin to improve the strength and durability of lateritic soil. The unconfined compressive test conducted on the soil samples mixed with cement at 1-1.5%, kaolin at 0.5-1% and bottom ash at 2-8% by weight of soil. The samples were cured in a plastic bag at 3, 7 and 14 days then soaked in the water at 2 hours before the test. The results shown the unconfined compressive strength of the soil improvement tends to increase with an increase in the amount of bottom ash. The soil mixed with cement at 1.5%, kaolin at 0.5%, and bottom ash at 6-8% can be developed the strength near the soil mixed with cement at 3% in 7 days. Moreover, the soil samples mixed with bottom ash at 6%, kaolin at 0.5% and cement at 1.5% can be increased the compressive strength 87% of the samples without bottom ash and kaolin. The strength requirement of subbase improvement is 689 kPa at the curing time 7 days. The results demonstrated the strength of soil mixed with cement at 1.5%, kaolin at 0.5% and bottom ash at 4-8% was higher than the requirement. In conclusion, bottom ash and kaolin can develop the strength of poor subbase and reduced the utilized amount of cement to improve the strength of soil.

  13. NON-CONTACT ESTIMATION OF STRAIN PARAMETER-TRIGGERING LIQUEFACTION Download Article

    Erica Elice S. Uy, Toshihiro Noda, Kentaro Nakai and Jonathan R. Dungca
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (82-88)
    • No of Download = 351

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    The strain parameter-triggering liquefaction is usually determined by implementing cyclic strain approach with a corresponding laboratory experiment. These parameters are threshold shear strain, cyclic shear strain and cyclic shear strain that would trigger liquefaction. In this study, non-contact measurement technique was implemented to estimate and monitor the development of the mentioned parameters. In this technique, a mirrorless camera and Lucas and Kanade pyramidal optical flow algorithm were utilized to track the movement of the particles. The camera was first calibrated to eliminate the errors from the lens and the scene as well. Furthermore, curvature correction was applied because the sample tested has a curved profile. The comparison was made with the loose and medium dense conditions. The samples were tested under a consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test at 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8 mm strain amplitudes. The confining pressures used were 50, 100 and 200 kPa. Based on the results, a non-contact measurement technique can estimate the parameters. A range of values was established due to the non-homogeneous movement of the soil.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A CRACK REPAIR METHOD USING YEAST-INDUCED CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION Download Article

    Yoko Sakakihara and Shinichirou Okazaki
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (89-94)
    • No of Download = 357

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    Although many examples of water leakages are observed between the high column of the bridge and the deck, the gaps in between them are not recognized as degradation. However, if water leaks from the gap, deterioration of the reinforced concrete becomes faster than expected, so even though this is not an urgent matter, some inexpensive repairs would be necessary. In this study, the applicability of bio-grout using microbial metabolism for crack repairs was investigated. Bio-grout is a repair material using microbial metabolism, mainly based on water. Therefore, bio-grout is expected to penetrate cracks more easily due to a capillary tension that is quite different from conventional inorganic or organic grout. Therefore, it is unnecessary to press fit the grout into cracks, and this grout is environmentally friendly. This study examined the mixture proportion of the bio-grout used to produce a significant amount of calcium carbonate. Further, the precipitation amount of calcium carbonate was investigated via sedimentation analysis using a geochemical code. The simulation model based on the geochemical code successfully reproduced, the precipitation amount of calcium carbonate with reasonable precision.

  15. THE EFFICIENCY OF FLY ASH AND CEMENT SLAG TO DEVELOPMENT BUILDING Download Article

    Ranti Hidayawanti, Supriadi Legino, Iriansyah Sangadji and Rony Panca Adi Widodo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-100)
    • No of Download = 378

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    In world construction, the construction of high-rise buildings almost entirely uses concrete. This study uses fly ash and cement slag as a cement substitute as a reduction in cement requirements. This is due to the limited amount of cement in the market and the binding function of cement and the increasing cement prices. The use of fly ash and cement slag is toxic hazardous waste material that must be handled so that it can be used properly. From the results of the age strength of concrete 1-3 days, the compressive strength of fly ash is higher than that of cement slag but from a mixture of 28 days, it reaches 100% in accordance with the specified standard. In this laboratory test for the use of fly ash and slag cement, 50%, in the future it is necessary to research that the use of fly ash and slag cement can be up to 70% so that the use of fly ash material and cement slag can replace the function of concrete mixed cement as a binder of coarse and fine material to get concrete compressive strength with specified standards. Production costs can be minimized so that if this applied can avoid the company from potential billions/year losses.

  16. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF RAILWAY BALLAST EXPOSED TO FLOODING CONDITIONS Download Article

    Sakdirat Kaewunruen and Tao Tang
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (101-108)
    • No of Download = 374

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    Railway ballast is one of the main components in ballasted railway track systems. It is installed under the railway sleeper to absorb dynamic wheel/rail interaction forces, preventing the underlying railway track subgrade from excessive stresses, enabling the interlocking of skeleton track onto the ground and providing lateral track stability. Generally, the dynamic modeling of ballast gravels relies on the available data, which are mostly focused on the condition at a dry condition. Recent findings show that railway track could significantly experience extreme climate such as long-term flooding. This phenomenon gives rise to a concern that the ballast may experience a higher level of moisture content than anticipated in the past. On this ground, a test rig for estimating the dynamic properties of rail ballast has been devised at the University of Birmingham. A non-destructive methodology for evaluating and monitoring the dynamic properties of the rail ballast has been developed based on an instrumented hammer impact technique and an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom system approximation. This investigation focuses on the dynamic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model of rail ballast submerged under the flood where the dependent effects of frequency can be distinguished. Based on the impact-excitation responses, the analytical state-dependent model was applied to best fit the experimental modal measurements that were performed in a frequency range of 0-500 Hz. The curve fitting gives such dynamic parameters as the modal mass, dynamic stiffness and dynamic damping constant, all of which are required for modern numerical modeling of a railway track.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC STRAND ROD Download Article

    Yasuhide Mochida and Yusuke Imoto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (109-115)
    • No of Download = 376

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    The purpose of the main research is to develop a more linear shape structural member using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic composite material. This paper will discuss the production stage begin with the instrumentation and machinery used in manufacturing, material selection for manufacturing the three-layer basic structure, and some improvement especially in material strength such as the tensile strength. In the process, fiber content and cavity ratio test, tensile strength test, alkali resistance test, temperature dependency test, weather resistance test, etc. is performed. Products that satisfy the expected performance were applied to the actual construction project. However, Carbon fiber composite materials are not included in designated building materials in the Japanese building standard. Therefore, it is difficult to apply the carbon fiber composite material in building construction in the present. An example case on a real project, carbon fiber composite materials used in structural member into the earthquake (horizontal) force resistant members

  18. GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SLUDGE BLENDED WITH CRUSHED CONCRETE AND INCINERATION ASH Download Article

    Muhammad Rashid Iqbal, Kento Hashimoto, Shinya Tachibana and Ken Kawamoto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (116-123)
    • No of Download = 395

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    Generation of large amounts of waste material reduces the capacity of landfill disposal sites. To make effective use of drinking water sludge (DWS) and DWS blended with crushed concrete (CC) and incineration ash (IA) as geotechnical materials, the geotechnical properties of DWS for suitability of a road subgrade were examined. A series of laboratory tests measuring compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), undrained triaxial compression, and consolidation was conducted by changing the mixing proportions of tested materials. The compaction test showed that maximum dry density and optimum water content have a unique linear relationship with the proportion of CC/IAs mixed with DWS. Measured CBR values of mixtures of CC/IA blended with DWS at both low energy (600 kJ/m3) and high energy (1800 kJ/m3) showed linear relationships, and an empirical equation was newly proposed in terms of mixing fraction and maximum dry density at low energy compaction. The result of the consolidated undrained triaxial compression test showed that the blend of CC/IA with DWS increased friction angles but did not contribute to an increase in the undrained shear strength. The results of consolidation tests showed that the blend of CC reduced the compressibility of DWS highly, especially samples that contained a proportion of CC and CC/IA greater than 50%. Overall, the blend of CC raised the compaction property of DWS accompanying an increase in bearing capacity, compressibility and can be effective to improve geotechnical properties of DWS for application as a road subgrade.

  19. THE MANAGEMENT OF RIVERBANK MAINTAINS THE DUNE PLANT POPULATION, AN ENDANGERED SPECIES, FIMBRISTYLIS SERICEA Download Article

    Michiko Masuda, Sota Yotsuya and Fumitake Nishimura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (124-129)
    • No of Download = 392

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    The habitat of riverbank dune nurses several endangered species. Why did this area maintaine endangered species despite of invasion of alien species? Then growth of an endangered species (Fimbristylis sericea) and an alien species (Diodia teres) was studied in a greenhouse experiment in which the species were grown alone or together and the resultant effects of shoot and root competition were assessed. In the alone growth experiment, the survival rates of the both species were same. In the shoot competition experiment, the D. teres reduced growth rate of F. sericea. In the root competition experiment, the F. sericea reduced growth rate of D. teres. In the total competition, F. sericea were superior to D. teres. From the experiments, F. sericea was more competitive than D. teres under the waterless same habitat. D. teres was more competitive than F. sericea under the waterrich condition. The habitat of riverbank dune is always affected strong wind, than the disturbance of sand moving. When D. teres is grown up, the sand moving prevented growth of D. teres. In the long term, the vegetation succession will reduce the disturbance frequency and will be occurred the extinction of endangered species.

  20. APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION BY MINING ACTIVITIES IN MANDALAY REGION, MYANMAR Download Article

    Than Htike Oo and Toshiro Hata
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (130-136)
    • No of Download = 410

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    environmentally and economically sustainable mining activities are essential for the long-term development of the sector. In Myanmar, there were a few research for the contamination of surface soil and groundwater of harmful effects caused by improper mining activities. Most of the research interests are geologically mapping for the potential area and chemical refining effect, not including the point of view about the environmental issue in mining areas. The environmental investigation is required in the near future to determine the detailed situation for surface and groundwater quality and human health. According to the previous study, arsenic concentration of groundwater has been found in some places of Sagaing, Mandalay, and Magway regions are higher than the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10μg/L. Gold and copper mineralization is distributed with sulfide minerals in the Mandalay region, Myanmar. Arsenic and heavy metal can be distributed into the environment naturally from the weathering, oxidation, and erosion of sulfide minerals. In this paper, the authors presented the overview of drinking water standards from four Asian countries they are Indonesia, Japan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. As a preliminary study, arsenic and some other heavy metal concentration in soil and rock (ore) samples will study from the Gold and Copper mining site in Mandalay Region, Myanmar by different methods. The analytical method is also very important to approach the assessment of environmental contamination because Myanmar is launching the practice of environmental assessment.

  21. COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCKS WITH POWDERED GREEN MUSSEL SHELL AS PARTIAL BINDER AND PIG HAIR AS FIBER REINFORCEMENT Download Article

    Bernardo A. Lejano, Ram Julian Gabaldon, Patrick Jason Go, Carlos Gabriel Juan and Michael Wong
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (137-143)
    • No of Download = 411

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    Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) made from soil and compacted using a mechanical molder can be stabilized using cement. Moreover, CEB can perform as well as concrete hollow blocks (CHB) when properly strengthened with ordinary Portland cement. Due to the low tensile strength of CEB, pig hair fibers (PHF) which is waste material, can be utilized as fiber reinforcement to improve the performance of CEB against cracking. Due to the high cost of cement, green mussel shells (GMS), which is another waste material, can be used as partial cement substitute in compressed earth blocks. In this study, CEBs with PHF and GMS were subjected to compressive, flexural, and drip erosion tests. By using 4 variations of fiber content of PHF (0, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1%) and 3 variations of percentages of cement replacement with GMS (0, 5%, and 10%) resulted to 12 PHF-GMS mix combinations. The compressive strength at 7, 14 and 28 days were evaluated for each mix combination. A total of 276 specimens were prepared in this study. Statistical analysis using the software Stata was conducted to filter the test results. ANOVA and T-Test were also used to determine the significance of the increase in strength with reference to the control specimen. Using the validated test results, the best performing mix was determined. The results showed that CEB with 0.75% PHF and 10%GMS is the best mix among those tested. It yielded 67% increase in compressive strength and 626% increase in flexural strength. Lastly, the same specimens, 0.75%PHF-10% GMS, also performed well in the drip erosion test.

  22. LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS OF ROAD EMBANKMENT IN PIDIE JAYA DUE TO ACEH EARTHQUAKE IN 2016 Download Article

    M Sofian Asmirza, Anissa Maria Hidayati, Abdul Hakam and M Maisaquddus Hape
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (144-149)
    • No of Download = 354

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    The 6.5 Mw Aceh earthquake has been struck the north-east part of Sumatra Island on 7 December 2016. The strong quake was at a depth of 13 km and categorized as a shallow earthquake. The earthquake has caused many damages to the roads as results of lateral spreading in Pidie Jaya Regency. This study is conducted to analyze the liquefaction phenomena that caused lateral spreading on the Pidie Jaya roads. All of the soil data for the analysis were taken from the field of the affected area. First, the soil data are analyzed to examine whether the soil sediment has the potential to liquefaction under the earthquake. Then the detailed analysis to observe the phenomenon of liquefaction on a particular road embankment is conducted with the use of numerical computer program. This study shows that for particular soil sediment which has liquefaction potential, the structure stability analyses need to consider liquefaction circumstance at a certain level. Finally, a reasonable geo-construction analysis is suggested for preventive measures of liquefaction.

  23. DIAPHRAGM WALL SUPPORTED BY GROUND ANCHORS AND INCLINED STRUTS: A CASE STUDY Download Article

    Adnan Anwar Malik, Gorkem Dora, Ramy Derar and Majid Naeem
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (150-156)
    • No of Download = 448

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    Diaphragm wall is one of the options to support deep excavation for the construction of basements in an urban area having constraints of space due to nearby structures. The subsurface conditions and nearby existing structures generally decide whether the diaphragm wall will be cantilever or propped. Here is a case study on a diaphragm wall for Qatar Industrial Manufacturing Company Building that comprises of 4 basements, ground floor, mezzanine, podium, and 38 floors. The planned excavation depth for the four basements was 15.95m. The subsurface ground consisted of made ground/fill material, Caprock, Simsima Limestone, Midra Shale and Rus formation. Plaxis 2D software was used to analyze the diaphragm wall. The analysis results showed that ground anchors were required to limit the deflection of the wall within the allowable deflection. Moreover, due to unavailability of foundation details for neighbor building, the ground anchor option was dropped, and inclined steel struts were considered, only in that section. As the inclined steel struts were supported by pile foundation, therefore lateral load analysis was performed through LPile software. Staad Pro. software was also used to analyze the waler beams. The target points at the top of the diaphragm wall were monitored through Total Station equipment to measure the horizontal deflection of the wall.

  24. HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AIR SUGIHAN SUB-RIVER BASIN, SOUTH SUMATERA, INDONESIA Download Article

    Wijaya Mardiansyah, M. Yusup Nur Khakim, Dedi Setiabudidaya, Satria J. Priatna and Iskhaq Iskandar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (157-162)
    • No of Download = 312

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    Characteristics of suboptimal land, which is usually located in a river basin area, is strongly influenced by soil conditions, hydrology and climate, in which its management requires an integrated data assessment and utilization. In order to examine the climatic and hydrological conditions as well as the tidal effect in the Air Sugihan sub-river basin, a water balance analysis was conducted on the combined climatic data obtained from satellite remote sensing and in-situ monthly tidal data for a period of 2001-2013. The climatic data includes a monthly precipitation data, surface winds, surface temperature, surface, and subsurface runoff. The water balance analysis shows that the average total annual runoff occurring in the study area was about 87.7 mm/month or equal to 102.67 m3/s. In addition, the water balance in the study area indicates an annual variation, in which the water deficit conditions are occurring in April to September with a peak during a dry season in August, while the surplus peak is occurring in November-December. However, the area is still experiencing a net annual surplus of about 302,468.81 m3/month. Furthermore, the water balance conditions in the Air Sugihan sub-river basin are significantly correlated with the tidal fluctuations indicated by a coefficient correlation of r = 0.88.

  25. REGRESSION MODELING OF BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF AN EXPANSION ANCHOR BOLT AS INFLUENCED BY CONCRETE AGGREGATES Download Article

    Gilford B. Estores, Wyndell A. Almenor and Charity Hope A. Gayatin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (163-169)
    • No of Download = 327

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    The frictional resistance of an expansion anchor bolt depends directly on the normal forces generated by the anchor expansion mechanism around the anchorage zone of the concrete base material. However, only the concrete aggregates around the anchorage zone have the direct shear contact with the anchor. This study aims to develop a regression model that predicts the breakout strength of an expansion anchor in plain concrete as influenced by the coarse aggregate size, coarse aggregate content, and fine aggregate content. Crushed coarse aggregates of sizes 10mm, 12.5mm, 19mm, and 25mm were used. The coarse aggregate content for each coarse aggregate size was 0.3452, 0.4046, 0.4462, and 0.4750, respectively. The fine aggregate content for each coarse aggregate size was 0.4243, 0.3771, 0.3514, and 0.3341, respectively. A heavy duty type of an expansion anchor bolt was used. There were five samples of base material specimens considered for each size of coarse aggregate. Each specimen was tested first for its compressive strength to ensure that it will meet the designed compressive strength and it will vary only at an acceptable deviation before the installation of the expansion anchors. The installed anchor bolts were then tested for pull-out. Tests results showed that among the parameters considered, coarse aggregate size is the most significant factor that could influence the breakout strength of an expansion anchor and it is optimum at 19mm size. A polynomial regression model is recommended to predict the concrete breakout strength of an expansion anchor bolt as influenced by the coarse aggregate size.

  26. WEST SUMATRA COASTLINE CHANGE DUE TO ABRASION PROTECTION STRUCTURES: PADANG BEACH Download Article

    Abdul Hakam, Junaidi, Bayu M Adji and Shafira Rahmadilla Hape
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (170-175)
    • No of Download = 132

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    The abrasion disaster that has resulted in remarkable coastline changes is one of the national disasters that concern the Indonesian government. The West Sumatra Government which has a significant long beach has made many abrasion prevention structures to stop loosing of hundreds of meters of land due to abrasion. In fact, the abrasion prevention structures not only protect the beach but on the other hand they also change the shape of the beach. A field study has been conducted and found that beaches that have been protected with abrasion prevention structures are susceptible to changes in shape. On the one side, the change provides benefits but on the other hand, it causes a new problem. This paper explains the relationship between the dimensions of the coastal abrasion prevention structure and the properties of adjacent beach sediment related to the shoreline changes occurring in West Sumatra. This study is very important to provide a prediction of shoreline changes due to the prevention of abrasion related to the beach soil properties. The result can be used to determine the precise abrasion prevention structures in accordance with the conditions of sediment on the beach for a future expected change.

  27. SEISMIC MICROZONATION OF SEMARANG, INDONESIA, BASED ON PROBABILISTIC AND DETERMINISTIC COMBINATION ANALYSIS Download Article

    Windu Partono, Masyhur Irsyam, I Wayan Sengara and Muhammad Asrurifak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (176-182)
    • No of Download = 343

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    One of the most important pieces of information obtained from the new Indonesian seismic hazard maps completed in 2017 was the identification of a fault that crosses the city of Semarang. This fault can be categorized as a new dangerous seismic source and should be taken into account in future seismic mitigation planning of this city. This paper describes the seismic microzonation of Semarang carried out via a combination of probabilistic and deterministic hazard analysis. The purpose of this research was to develop a risk map for Semarang based on one percent building collapse in 50 years. The analysis was performed using the same method employed in developing risk targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) maps in 2012, with an improved beta (logarithmic standard deviation) value of 0.65 and adjusted direction factors of 1.1 and 1.3 for short- and long-period spectral acceleration, respectively. Whereas the 2012 maximum MCER spectral acceleration was distributed in the north-east of the study area due to the presence of Lasem fault, the 2018 maximum is located in the north-western part of the city as a result of the newly developed Semarang fault.

  28. BACK PROPAGATION ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODELING OF FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE REINFORCED WITH POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS Download Article

    Stephen John C. Clemente, Edward Caezar D.C. Alimorong and Nolan C. Concha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (183-188)
    • No of Download = 349

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    The production of fiber reinforced concrete involves a complex reaction system. This imposes an immense challenge in deriving appropriate material proportions of concrete to achieve desired mechanical properties. In order to facilitate selection of a design matrix for fiber reinforced concrete, a novel artificial Neural Network models for compressive and flexural strengths using back propagation feed-forward algorithm were proposed in this research. A wide range of varied concrete design mixes of cylindrical and beam samples was respectively tested for compressive and flexural tests. A polypropylene type of fiber reinforcement was used in the preparation of samples that were cured for 28 days in a water-saturated lime. Results showed that the compressive and flexural strength models provided predictions in good agreement with experimental results as described by high correlation values of 99.46% and 98.57% respectively. Mean squared errors of 0.0024 and 0.44 were obtained respectively in selecting the best fit model for compressive and flexural strengths. In the parametric analysis conducted, the proposed models were able to describe analytically the constitutive relationships of the material components and capture the dominant characteristics of concrete samples.

  29. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR EVALUATING THE SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF RC FRAME STRUCTURE WITH PARTIALLY INFILLED BY BRICK MASONRY Download Article

    Jafril Tanjung, Febrin Anas Ismail, Maidiawati and Oscar Fithrah Nur1 and Mahlil
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (189-194)
    • No of Download = 360

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    The responses of the brick masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures under seismic excitation were quite complex due to highly nonlinear of their composite behavior and interaction between RC frame structure and it brick masonry infill. The presence of the brick masonry infills can greatly improve the seismic performance of RC frame structures by increasing their lateral strength and stiffness, respectively. However, when the RC frame structure is only partially infilled with the brick masonry wall, the responses of the RC frame structure becomes completely different. In this study, a series experimental was conducted to evaluate the seismic performance of RC frame structures with partially infilled by the brick masonry. Three of 1/4 reduce-scaled of RC frame specimens, i.e. a bare RC frame, a fully brick infilled RC frame and a partially brick infilled RC frame has been experientially tested under lateral static reversed cyclic loading. Experimentally results have shown that existence of the partially brick masonry infilled in the RC frame structure play a significant role in damaging of the RC column.

  30. ANALYSIS OF DRAINAGE CAPACITY TO RESOLVE INUNDATION PROBLEM ON JEND. H. AMIR MACHMUD STREET CIMAHI CITY WEST JAVA PROVINCE Download Article

    In Karnisah, Yackob Astor, Bambang Setio Budianto, Fitra Ramdhan Arrizal and Reynaldy Putra Herlambang
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (195-200)
    • No of Download = 310

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    Nowadays, water inundation often occurs in some areas in Cimahi. One of the highest inundation occurred on Jenderal H. Amir Machmud street with a depth of 100 cm with the receding time 1 – 2 hours. This condition causes a very high level of congestion, so it can cut access from Bandung to Cimahi. In addition, of course, this condition can cause damage to the road itself. Using a drainage cross-section data from Cimahi government and field measurement, rainfall data, topographic map, and land use data the existing drainage capacity can be calculated by manual and HEC-RAS. Based on the result of manual calculation, there is total debit in drainage channel on 2 year return period is 2.86 m3/sec, 5 year return period is 3.59 m3/sec, and a 10 year return period is 4.08 m3/sec with the existing channel debit is 2.02 m3/sec so that cause the water overflows from the channel. The Cilember River flows with a large discharge 2 years period is 59.64 m3/sec, a 5 year return period is 93.74 m3/sec, and 10 years 118.30 m3/sec crossing Amir Machmud Street affecting high inundation at the site of the review. To solve the problem, some models of solution have been made in the form of new box culvert drainage channel planning with the smallest dimension is 2 × 2 m and biggest dimension is 3 × 3 m. Meanwhile, to handle the overflow of water from Cilember River planned 2 pieces of culverts with dimensions 2.5 × 2.5 m.

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