Articles

  1. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF METAL(LOID)S EXPOSURE VIA INDOOR DUST FROM URBAN AREA IN CHELYABINSK, RUSSIA Download Article

    Tatyana G. Krupnova, Olga V. Rakova, Irina V. Mashkova, Egor V. Artyukov and Nikita E. Vlasov
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1-7)
    • No of Download = 239

    Abstract

    close

    Purpose of the study deals with the health risk assessment of metal(loid)s (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb) contamination in 17 household dust from an urban area of Chelyabinsk, Russia. Risk assessment models described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was applied. The concentrations of metal(loid)s in the indoor dust determined in previous studies were used for calculating. The study showed that both children and adults having individual health quotient (HQ)<1 for all metal(loid)s are at negligible non-carcinogenic risk. The combined total exposure hazard index (HI) value for children was 1.07. It is indicating that the metal(loid)s detected would harm the children. The cancer risk for adults from exposure to As and Cr was found to be the acceptable or tolerable, their carcinogenic risk assessment (CRA) was in the range of 1·10−6…1·10−4. The cancer risk for children from exposure to As and Cr was found to be harmful to human beings (CRA > 1·10−4), As and Cr had CRA for children 1.36·10−4 and 2.81·10−4, respectively.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANIONIC COMPONENTS OF LEAD ON BIOTOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION ABILITY IN RESPECT OF PROBIOTIC STAMPS Download Article

    Alexey Sizentsov, Galina Karpova, Tatyana Klimova, Elena Salnikova, Olga Kvan, Elena Barysheva1 and Irina Gavrish
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (8-13)
    • No of Download = 223

    Abstract

    close

    Lead is one of the most dangerous xenobiotic elements. It is actively accumulated not only in the environment, the distribution of lead in the water-soil-plant-animal-man chain directly depends on the initial content of elements in the geochemical province and is directly related to the health of the population. [1]. This paper presents the results of a study of the biotoxicity of lead cations in the structure of salts with different anionic components in relation to bacteria of the genus Bacillus, which are part of the probiotic preparations. These microorganisms are representatives of the soil microflora and are transitory to the organism of animals and humans. When conducting research, methods such as the agar wells were used, which not only visually but also qualitatively evaluate the effect of metal cations on the growth of the microorganisms studied, the colorimetric method was used to assess the effect of the element under study on the growth of the microorganism population, and the atomic absorption method made it possible to study accumulating characteristics of the studied bacteria. As a result of research, it has been established that lead acetate has a more pronounced toxic effect on the microorganisms under study. It should be noted that lead, which is present in the medium in high concentrations, does not have an inhibitory effect on bacterial strains; we associate this with the detoxification mechanisms of bacteria. The accumulating ability of microorganisms of the Bacillus genus of lead cations from nutrient substrates 24 hours after their cultivation in the presence of this element has high sorption characteristics with a percentage of its accumulation of more than 50%, the most active lead accumulates B. subtilis 534 with 66.3%, and the minimum values were recorded in B. amyloliquefaciens 10642 and amounted to 53.2%.

  3. FIELD PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A STUBBLE CUTTING MACHINE COUPLED WITH A WINDROW GATHERING SYSTEM Download Article

    Nguyen Thanh Nghi, Tran Van Tuan and Le Quang Vinh
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (14-19)
    • No of Download = 215

    Abstract

    close

    Stubble left in the field after harvest is a by-product in rice production systems. Presently, most of the stubble is burned in the field or mulched in the soil. In areas where the requirement for straw exceeds supply, stubble collection is carried out. With the height of stubble after harvesting of 25.3 cm, the available stubble yield is 3.1 ton/ha at a moisture content of 12%. In previous research, the use of a combine harvester to cut stubble simultaneously with harvesting was found to be inappropriate because of improperly designed equipment for this purpose. Thus, cutting and gathering stubble is still a challenge because of technological and economic reasons. In this study, the performance of a rice stubble cutting machine coupled with a windrow gathering system was evaluated along with an economic analysis of the use of the machine. We found that the machine performed well in the field with a capacity of 0.5 ha/h and the maximum rotary moment for driving the cutting disc was 168 N.m, corresponding to 14.1 HP at cutting speed of 52.3 m/s. At the cutting height of 4.9 cm, collected stubble yield was 2.0 ton/ha with the stubble loss in field of 7.3%. Using the machine for stubble cutting and gathering not only contributes to increasing rice farmers’ income but has the added benefit of avoiding in-field burning of stubble that causes air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. SPICE MODEL OF DRAIN INDUCED BARRIER LOWERING IN SYMMETRIC JUNCTIONLESS DOUBLE GATE MOSFET Download Article

    Hakkee Jung
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (20-27)
    • No of Download = 195

    Abstract

    close

    A SPICE model of Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL) has been proposed for a symmetric junctionless double gate (JLDG) MOSFET. For this purpose, the potential distribution in the channel is obtained using the Poisson equation, and the threshold voltage is determined by the third derivative (TD) method. The SPICE model of DIBL should be expressed as a function of silicon thickness tsi as well as channel length Lg, oxide thickness tox, and SPICE parameter η such as σD=AηLg -3 tsi 2tox due to the effect of silicon thickness on carrier transport in a nanostructure JLDG MOSFET, even though it is only defined by channel length and oxide thickness in SPICE model of conventional MOSFET. As a result, it is found that the proportional constant A is 22.0 and the static feedback coefficient η is reasonably between 0.2 and 0.9. The DIBLs obtained by using the threshold voltage model published in other papers show a good agreement with those of this model regardless of the channel length at 20 nm or more, but the DIBLs of the other models are different at the sub-20 nm channel lengths from one another due to approximations of each other. Also, we show that the DIBL for JLDG MOSFET is smaller than junction-based double gate MOSFET.

  5. COMPARISON OF COD AND TSS REMOVALS FROM ARTIFICIAL RIVER WATER BY MUDBALLS MADE WITH ACTIVATED EM1 AND EM4 SOLUTIONS Download Article

    Fadjari Lucia Nugroho, Deni Rusmaya and Muthia Damayanti
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (28-33)
    • No of Download = 199

    Abstract

    close

    In Indonesia, surface waters are often polluted by domestic waste. The use of Effective Microorganisms (EM) mixed with rice bran and clay soil then shaped into mudballs has been suggested as a means to directly improve water quality of polluted rivers. This study examined the removal of COD and TSS by 2.5 cm φ mudballs made with two different kinds of activated EM solutions, i.e. EM1 and EM4. Batch experiments at 30°C were conducted where artificial river water was treated with mudballs made from rice bran, and clay soil, which was mixed with either activated EM1 or EM4 solutions. Removal efficiencies of 120 mg/L COD by the mudballs were respectively 60.3% with EM1 and 59.4% with EM4. Removal efficiencies of 100 mg/L TSS were respectively 100% with EM1 and 97.9% with EM4. Statistical hypothetical testing of the experimental data suggests that at α=0.05, there is no difference in removal efficiencies of COD and TSS by mudballs made with either EM1 or EM4. COD and TSS removal efficiencies are correlated with mudballs’ diameter; where increasing diameter results in better removal efficiencies. pH values of artificial river water after 5 days treatment by mudballs mixed with EM1 and EM4 were respectively 6.2 and 4.8. TSS isotherm sorption by mudballs with EM1 better fits the BET model, with qm= 32.4 mg/g, whereas that with EM4 better fits the Langmuir model, with Qm = 7.52 mg/g; KL = 0.0168 L/mg and RL = 0.373. It appears that EM1 would be the preferred EM solution for direct treatment of polluted surface waters.

  6. MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PRIVATE CLINICS IN SURABAYA AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT Download Article

    Susi A Wilujeng, Enri Damanhuri and Mochammad Chaerul
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (34-39)
    • No of Download = 188

    Abstract

    close

    Health care services generate solid wastes that impose environmental risk if not properly managed, especially the one categorized as hazardous. The compliance of those facilities to the regulation regarding waste management—from the source by waste reduction, segregation, storage, transportation, treatment, and burial— is important to be investigated to identify whether it has been conducted properly. This study was conducted in 17 representative clinics by sampling their solid waste for five consecutive days, observing whether the operation of their solid waste management is confirming the related regulations, and performing logistic regression analysis to develop the correlation between independent variables (sanitary officer that specifically responsible for managing waste; routine budget allocated for waste management; standard operational procedure (SOP) for waste management; and waste management training for staffs) and dependent variables (color-coded waste containment; symbol assignment on waste container; and waste storage location). The results show that the medical waste generation rate was 0.070 kg/patient/day. The composition of the waste from clinics comprised of 21% sharps, 42% infectious, and 37% general waste. The process of solid waste segregation, collection, and storage has not complied with the standard regulated by the government. Logistic regression analysis shows that for implementation of the color-coded container the affecting factors are budget and SOP; for the availability of waste storage is staff training; while for symbol assignment there seem to be no significant factors affecting it.

  7. THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY PHYTOPLANKTON IN TROPICAL LAKE AND RESERVOIR Download Article

    Melati Ferianita Fachrul, Astri Rinanti and Diana Irvindiaty Hendrawan
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (40-45)
    • No of Download = 183

    Abstract

    close

    The increasing of atmospheric carbon dioxide has become a public and scientific concern, especially in the potential aquatic ecosystem such as lake and reservoir as carbon sequestration is inevitable to decelerate the global warming process. The aim of the study is to estimate carbon sequestration by phytoplankton in tropical lake and reservoir, a case study in Maninjau Lake (0°19′S; 100°12′E), West Sumatera Province and Pluit Reservoir (6°6'58.13"S; 106°47'54.69" E), Jakarta Province, Indonesia. The study was conducted in eleven sampling points to represent the lake during in May–July 2016 in Pluit Reservoir and in May-July 2017 in Maninjau Lake. Plankton nets were used for sampling phytoplankton. The determination of sampling points is based on the Indonesian National Standard 6989.57: 2008 regarding the method of sampling of surface water. Phytoplankton sampling was carried out by filtering water samples as much as 100 liters from 50 cm surface water by using a plankton net (25 μm mesh size). To find out the amount of carbon sequestration an analysis was carried out to measure the abundance of phytoplankton communities and the concentration of chlorophyll-a. The results of this study revealed the abundance of phytoplankton in Maninjau Lake range 78-273-cell/l belonging to 4 classes and carbon sequestration average was 0.0504 mgC/m3. However, in Pluit Reservoir abundance range was 72-800 cell/l belonging to 2 classes with carbon sequestration average 0.1181 mgC/m3. The study concluded that phytoplankton could give the information about the carbon sequestration rate and as instrumental in formulating effective strategies related to carbon sequestration.

  8. STUDY ON ADSORPTION PERFORMANCE OF FOOD WASTES FOR VARIOUS HEAVY METALS Download Article

    Keiichiro Shibata, Hidenori Yoshida, Tsumugi Inoue, Matsumoto Naomichi and Yoshihiro Suenaga
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (46-52)
    • No of Download = 286

    Abstract

    close

    The harmful materials are come to a head through the redevelopment in empty lots in recent years. The soil and groundwater contaminations are often caused by heavy metals and the volatile organic compounds. The cleaning treatment water for the excavated soil and the contaminated water pumping is generated by digging and washing the contaminated soil. The adsorption disposal by the activated carbon is conducted at the disposal method for both contaminated water and pumped groundwater after the aeration disposal. However, the activated carbon has a low adsorption performance for inorganic substances such as the heavy metals. Thus, in this study, the rice husk and fish bones which are an industrial waste are focused on. The material cost is saved by using industrial waste. The production process of the fishbone is only burning, and the rice husk is not manufactured. It is examined whether both materials can be used as the adsorbent for the heavy metals. As the results of examinations, it is clarified that some heavy metals such as Zn2+ and Cd2+ are well adsorbed into both materials and both materials are useful as the recycling materials.

  9. THE ACUTE EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL THAI MASSAGE ON RECOVERY FROM FATIGUE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS Download Article

    Nopparak Kaesaman and Wichai Eungpinichpong
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (53-58)
    • No of Download = 108

    Abstract

    close

    Massage has been used as an alternative treatment for professional athletes for decades. However, it has hardly been used for rapid recovery on the sport field that always needs rapid recovery during half-time brake of competition such as basketball. This study aims to investigate the acute effects of Traditional Thai Massage on recovery in basketball players as indicated by heart rate variability (HRV) and physical fitness. A cross-over design was administered. Sixteen basketball players were randomly allocated into two groups: intervened with Traditional Thai Massage (TTM) and Control (C). Each period, the participants underwent 20 minutes of basketball-playing simulation after which they were assessed on HRV and physical fitness. Then they received either 10-minute TTM intervention or 10-minute rest, and were assessed again immediately after the interventions with 3 days washout period. The results showed that HRV and physical fitness were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in both groups after the interventions. HR, was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in two group. There was no significant difference of LF/HF ratio (LF/HF ratio) in the control group. Compare outcome between group found that RMSSD, HF values were significantly different (p<0.05) and no significant differences in the comparison of results between groups. However, the results from this study do indicate that TTM can improve recovery in basketball players by increasing HRV.

  10. ECOLOGY OF RUMINAL MICROORGANISMS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF QUERCUS CORTEX EXTRACT Download Article

    Galimzhan Duskaev, Il'shat Karimov, Georgy Levakhin, Baer Nurzhanov, Albert Rysaev and Hamdiya Dusaeva
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (59-66)
    • No of Download = 214

    Abstract

    close

    The study was performed for assessing the elemental status and the bacterial composition of the rumen fluid microflora in cattle after incubation in vitro with quercus cortex extract and exogenous enzymes. The mixture of alfalfa hay, sudangrass and concentrates (60:40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that in the protozoa a decrease in such elements as p, na, ca (p≤0.05) was observed when a substrate with enzyme was added. The level of essential elements in bacteria three hours after the incubation together with the enzyme changed similar to the protozoa, except for copper, the content of which increased two times (p≤0.05). The introduction of quercus cortex extracts into the substrate with the enzyme preparation three hours after the incubation promoted a significant increase in iron, manganese and cobalt content in the protozoa (p≤0.05). Unlike other variants, incubation of the substrate with the enzyme together with the extract increased the number of representatives of the taxa firmicutes by 13.2%, bacteroidetes - by 13.4% (p≤0.05) against the background of a slight decrease in proteobacteria, saccharibacteria and fibrobacteres. An increase was observed in the number of microorganisms belonging to the taxa clostridia (by 23.7%; p≤0.05) and bacteroidia (by 13.4%; p≤0.05). The biosensor based on b.subtilis on samples with the extract reacted by quenching the luminescence by 60% on the 5th minutes and by 32% on the 60th-minute contact. Thus, the chemical composition of oak bark extract significantly influenced the elemental profile and the bacterial composition of cattle rumen microorganisms.

  11. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FOUR CLINICAL TRIALS FOR MEASUREMENT OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY Download Article

    Apichat Deeminoi1 and Thanarat Sripongngam
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (67-72)
    • No of Download = 49

    Abstract

    close

    The flexibility of hamstring muscles is very important in sports which can be measured in many tests. The relationship of each test for measuring on the hamstring muscles flexibility has not been verified. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the four tests. Ninety-six participants have received four methods of hamstring muscles flexibility tests consist of sit and reach test (SR), stand and reach test (ST), passive knee extension test (PKE), and passive straight leg raise test (PSLR). Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the four tests. This study demonstrated a highly significant correlation between SR and ST (r=0.87), a moderate significant correlation between SR and PSLR (r=0.50), a moderate significant correlation between ST and SLR (r=0.46), and a low significant correlation between PKE and SLR (r=0.33). We conclude that SR and ST were a high correlation in the measurement of hamstring muscle flexibility which can be used interchangeably.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF N-(3-OXOHEXANOYL)-L-HOMOSERINE LACTONE AND VEGETABLE MOLECULES IN VITRO Download Article

    Il'shat Fayzelgayanovich Karimov and Galimzhan Kalikhanovich Duskaev
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (73-79)
    • No of Download = 189

    Abstract

    close

    The ban on the use of antibiotics in the feed of farm animals has promoted an active search for new substances with similar properties. Particular attention of researchers has been devoted to the search for these substances among medicinal plants. The effect of substances of vegetable origin, such as coumarin and coniferyl alcohol which both form part of oak bark, on the activity of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules have been investigated. Reporter luminescent test systems were used to quantify the stress effects using bioluminescent analysis. It was found that the absorption spectrum of coumarin is characterized by the presence of four peaks at 205, 215, 275, 310 nm. The interaction with coniferyl alcohol was characterized by a shift in the absorption maxima (250 and 265 nm). The introduction of a molecule of AHL into the system led to the disappearance of the peak at 250 nm and a significant decrease in the absorption at 265 nm. The formation of a complex of ruminal fluid and coumarin led to a decrease in the expression efficiency of the sensory promoter luxI to a level of 476626 RLU using the same concentration of GSL (homoserine lactone). The combination of ruminal fluid and coniferyl alcohol led to a decrease in the quantum yield of the E. coli strain to the level of 345896 RLU following the use of GSL at a concentration of 10-4 M. The use of natural plant components (synthetic analogues) enhances the level of inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) system activity by the inactivation of regulatory molecules.

  13. HEATING VALUE ENHANCEMENT BY BIOGAS PURIFICATION USING NATURAL ZEOLITE AND RICE STRAW-BASED BIOCHAR Download Article

    Ambar Pertiwiningrum, Margaretha Arnita Wuri, Andang Widi Harto, Rachmawan Budiarto and Misri Gozan
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (80-85)
    • No of Download = 251

    Abstract

    close

    Biogas has many incentives to replace firewood and crop straw for cooking in the rural area. However, to access the sustained adoption of clean, carbon neutral and eco-friendly household fuels, raw biogas needs to be purified before used. Beside methane (CH4), raw biogas contains trace components adversely affecting appliances or end-user. For example, carbon dioxide (CO2), the greatest impurities in biogas, affect the decrease in heating value. In some literature, the adsorption for CO2 was claimed to be cheap, simple and adaptable for CO2 removal. Carbon dioxide removal using rice straw-based biochar combined with natural zeolite (Z-RB) at room temperature and gas pressure range of 5-7 bar. Carbon dioxide removal using Z-RB increased the theoretical and empirical heating value of biogas from 1214.48 to 1766.34 kJ and from 276 to 288.55 kJ respectively. From this observation, the blue flame that appeared from the combustion of purified biogas using Z-RB went out for longer than using natural zeolite only (Z-Z).

  14. VEHICLE ACTUATED SIGNAL CONTROL FOR LOW CARBON SOCIETY Download Article

    Thanapol Promraksa, Thaned Satiennam and Wichuda Satiennam
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (86-91)
    • No of Download = 178

    Abstract

    close

    The purpose of this study is to propose and evaluate the vehicle actuated signal control for coordinated intersections to reduce CO2 emission from the transportation sector for the low carbon society. The study area is a group of 3 signalized intersections locating along the National Highway No. 2 in Phol district, Khon Kean province, Thailand. This study proposed and evaluated the several signal control strategies to increase the effectiveness of these intersections. The proposed strategies consist of i) fixed time control, ii) coordinated control, iii) semi actuated control, and iv) fully actuated the control. This study applied the traffic microsimulation to evaluate the proposed strategies. The developed traffic microsimulation model was calibrated by using the traffic data surveyed during the morning peak. The study found that the full vehicle actuated signal control was the best strategy to improve the level of service of intersections and to reduce CO2 emission. Average delay, average stop time delay, average maximum queue length and CO2 emissions of total systems decreased by, 44.7%, 55.2%, 33.0% and 8.7%, when compared with existing fixed time control. Therefore, the full vehicle actuates signal control could be promoted for the low carbon society.

  15. DETERMINATION OF CAROTENOIDS AND DOBI CONTENT IN CRUDE PALM OIL BY SPECTROSCOPY TECHNIQUES: COMPARISON OF RAMAN AND FT-NIR SPECTROSCOPY Download Article

    Rayakorn Nokkaew, Vittaya Punsuvon, Tetsuya Inagaki and Satoru Tsuchikawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (92-98)
    • No of Download = 249

    Abstract

    close

    Crude palm oil (CPO) is a rich source of carotenoids which are a precursor of vitamin A as an important antioxidant. Carotenoids and Deterioration Of Bleachability Index (DOBI) are important factors to indicated quality of CPO. The conventional method for DOBI and carotenoids determination use UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC, respectively which methods use solvents and spend time for analysis. This research interests Raman and FT-NIR spectroscopy for carotenoids and DOBI determination due to those techniques are an alternative technique for rapid measurement, non-destruction of material, and environmental suitability. The results indicated that Raman is better for determination than FT-NIR spectrometry. In Raman analysis, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) treated methods were the best models for carotenoids and DOBI, respectively. The bands of carotenoids were at 1,100 and 1,500 cm-1 wavenumber. Validation on carotenoids produced 0.94 of the correlation coefficient (R), 0.88 of a coefficient of determination (R2), 40.65 ppm of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and 3.25 of the ratio of standard error of prediction to the standard deviation (RPD). The validation of DOBI produced 0.76 of R, 0.57 of R2, 0.31 of RMSEP, 1.92 of RPD of 1.92. The limitation of carotenoids and DOBI determination using FT-NIR is having sufficient concentration of carotenoids for analysis. In addition, data for various samples regarding location, season, and oil palm species are important to build models for precise prediction.

  16. A NETWORK MODELING APPROACH WITH INTERDEPENDENT AGENTS FOR NETWORK COORDINATION Download Article

    Chi Yung Lam
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (99-104)
    • No of Download = 255

    Abstract

    close

    Good coordination in the supply chain network can achieve competitive advantages in terms of performance and customer satisfaction. In this paper, a supply chain is modeled as a network with higher visibility and better coordination among the supply chain entities. The approach is an integration of network modeling and agent-based framework, which considers the coordination problem in supply chain network with multiple entities. A supply chain is firstly modeled as a network with a set of nodes for supply chain entities and links for interdependent connection among entities, interdependent agents are then introduced to link and evaluate the output information from preceding entities to the input information for the succeeding entities in a supply chain network. The interdependent agents address problems of autonomy and complexity that cause changes and disruptions in supply chain network, so the proposed modeling approach can adjust any deviation as well as can maximize the coordinating performance in the network.

  17. ARTIFICIAL PAPER FROM PUTTARAKSA (CANNA INDICA LINN) AND PLUBPLUENG (CRINUM ASIATICUM) Download Article

    Kanokwan Rudisirisak and Nittaya Ngowattana
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (105-112)
    • No of Download = 142

    Abstract

    close

    Puttaraksa (Canna indica) and Plubplueng (Crinum asiaticum) are plants used for decorative landscaping. Their branches and leaves are cut and discarded to enhance the beauty and attractiveness of the flowers. The discarded parts of the plant are burned, which releases greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Therefore, this research focused on developing a method for producing paper from the leaves of Puttaraksa and Plubplueng. The pulp was produced from these leaves by using three bases; NaOH, KOH and ash solution in a concentration range of 1-5 % (w/v). The pulp was then boiled in a range of 5-25 minutes. The optimal conditions to produce Puttaraksa paper were 15 minutes boiling time in 4% (w/v) KOH. The chemical components of this paper were 93.74 % holocellulose, 1.55% lignin, and 3.66 % extractives. The physical properties of this paper were 66.43 % brightness, 400 mN tearing resistance, and 1.0 kg/cm2 bursting strength. The optimal conditions to produce Plubplueng paper were 15 minutes boiling time in 4% (w/v) ash solution. The chemical components of this paper were 93.25% holocellulose, 5.41% lignin, and 4.24% extractives. The physical properties of this paper were 68.08% brightness, 340 mN tearing resistance, and 0.5 kg/cm2 bursting strength. The chemical and physical properties of the paper produced from Puttaraksa were similar to paper from mulberry. However, physical properties of Puttaraksa paper were better than those of Plubplueng paper, which make Puttaraksa the better alternative for paper production.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF TRANSFLUTHRIN AS THE ACTIVE SUBSTANCE OF ONE PUSH AEROSOL REPELLENT ON ORGANS DAMAGE OF MICE (MUS MUSCULUS) (CASE STUDY OF LUNG, LIVER, BLOODS, AND KIDNEY) Download Article

    Unggul Pundjung Juswono, Arinto Yudi Ponco Wardoyo, Chomsin Sulistya Widodo and Johan Andoyo Effendi Noor
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (113-118)
    • No of Download = 55

    Abstract

    close

    One push aerosol repellent used by the public contains an active substance called transfluthrin. Transfluthrin is mostly pyrethroid synthetic which has functions as neurotoxin substance. It may act as free radicals in the body due to the compounds which have one free electron that makes it reactive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of transfluthrin on mice organs. In this study, the experimental animals (Wistar mice) were put in an exposure chamber and exposed by one push aerosol repellent contains around 20-25% of transfluthrin one time a day for 15 days. The damage of mice organs was identified by the microscopic picture (400x of magnification). The results showed that the expose of repellent contains about 20-25% of transfluthrin on mice increase the damage of lung, liver, blood, and kidney cells from 13% to 24%, 12% to 27%, 9% to 69% and 22% to 55%, respectively.

  19. COMPARISON OF LEE-CARTER’S CLASSIC AND GENERAL MODEL FOR FORECASTING MORTALITY RATE IN INDONESIA Download Article

    Lutfiani Safitri, Sri Mardiyati and Hendrisman Rahim
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (119-124)
    • No of Download = 201

    Abstract

    close

    Assurance Company needs to know the mortality rate of a country to decide the value of the premium which has to be paid by the company. To do that, an assurance company requires a mathematical model which is able to represent problems in forecasting mortality rate. One of the models which have been acknowledged by the actuary community in forecasting mortality rate is the Lee-Carter model. This research forecasts the mortality rate in Indonesia by using Classical Lee-Carter Model as the basic model of Lee-Carter. Besides that, this research also used Generalized Lee-Carter model, which is an extension of the basic Lee-Carter model. The parameters in both models will be estimated by using Least Square method and the Newton Raphson method. The result of parameter estimation will be substituted into the model to obtain the estimated mortality rate and the result will be compared. Then, the parameter which depends on the year will be used in mortality forecasting by using the neural network. The final result of this research is a table of mortality rate in Indonesia for the next 3-years period.

  20. INTERVAL MODEL OF FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK AT THE MULTI STAGE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Download Article

    Sabarudin Akhmad, Miswanto and Herry Suprajitno
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (125-130)
    • No of Download = 200

    Abstract

    close

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a comprehensive decision-making model, includes all parts of the supply that make up the food supply chain. The research method is divided into two parts. The first part is designing a comprehensive configuration of singles product multi-stage FSCN model, which consists of multi farmers, multi factories, multi-distribution central, and multi-consumer retail. This section also examines supply chain design problems with various uncertainty conditions of the parameters and propose a mathematical modeling framework to optimize the FSCN problem. The second part complements the optimization of the single product multi-stage FSCN model using interval programming method. The optimal optimization is minimization the total costs incurred to operate a multi-stage distribution system. FSCN configuration is formed based on the case of the salt distribution system, consisting of 9 salt farmer groups, 3 warehouses, 2 factories, 3 distribution centers (DC) and 6 consumer retail points. This configuration explains the structure that forms the network and its role in the food supply chain network interval model. Interval Coefficient method used effectively and usefully can solve FSCN optimization problems in real life. This interval method uses matrix data input of costs in the form of intervals. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example where it is proven optimization problem of FSCN model can be solved with the Interval Method.

  21. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION THROUGH PRO-POOR TOURISM CONCEPT IN SLUM AREA (CASE STUDY: KELURAHAN JODIPAN, MALANG CITY) Download Article

    Gunawan Prayitno, Nindya Sari, Ike Karwinto Putri
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (131-137)
    • No of Download = 184

    Abstract

    close

    Kelurahan Jodipan is one of the slums in Malang City which is at downtown and river bank of Brantas. In 2014, Kelurahan Jodipan became the center of world's attention because it can change the image of its area, be a colorful residential area that became one of the must-visit tourist destinations in Malang. The concept of tourism can indicate as the application of Pro-Poor Tourism concept. Tourism in Kelurahan Jodipan requires contribution and participation of the community to continue the tourism activities. Therefore, this study aims to assess the level of social capital in alleviating poverty through Pro-Poor Tourism concepts in slums. The analytical method used in this research is the Rate of Participation (RoP) analysis and Structural Equation Modeling analysis using MPLUS to know the relationship between variables and dominant factors that influence. The result of RoP analysis is the level of community participation of RW.02 Kelurahan Jodipan belongs to the low participation class. The average community follows one institutional in Kelurahan Jodipan. The results of SEM analysis is the association between social capital and tourism proportional. That is, the better the social capital in the community, the better the management of environmental tourism. Second, the relationship between social capital and tourism with community poverty is inversely proportional. That is, the higher the social capital and the better the tourism activity then the poverty in the region will be smaller. The last result is Pro-Poor Tourism tourism activities, in this case, can reduce the poverty level of the community.

  22. PRIORITY SELECTION OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS WITH FLOOD HAZARD IN LIMAPULUH KOTA DISTRICT, WEST SUMATRA Download Article

    Iswandi Umar, Indang Dewata, Eri Barlian, Syafri Anwar and Yurni Suarti
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (138-144)
    • No of Download = 175

    Abstract

    close

    The flood disaster has caused much harm to human life. The Effort to reduce the disadvantages caused by the flood is to develop settlement area priority based natural disaster. The purpose of research to determine the priority zone of settlement development using geography information system method (GIS) with regards to hazard risk. The indicator used in determining of area suitability for the settlement are a slope, flood, drainage, gravel, texture, and effective depth. Meanwhile, the Indicators used to determine of flood hazard zone are kinds of soil, slope, landform, rainfall, elevation, land use, and geology. The result shows that the level of area suitability and flood hazard of Limapuluh Kota district were 46% and 50.6%, respectively, these results are categorized as prone to moderate. The analysis result for priority of settlement area development for Limapuluh Kota district shows that it was suitable for S2 (fourth level priority) and flood hazard to medium. Therefore, in the use of area needs more cost and environmental conservation as disaster mitigation efforts for the future.

  23. WASTE MANAGEMENT AND GREEN PRODUCTIVITY IN INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE Download Article

    Rachmad Hidayat and Mu’alim
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (145-152)
    • No of Download = 162

    Abstract

    close

    Increased productivity raises many environmental problems. The production process creates material and energy discharges that will burden the environment. The purpose of the present study is to identify the problems in the production process that affect productivity, to measure the levels of productivity and Environmental Performance Index (EPI) and to devise alternative solutions to improvements by using the Green Productivity approach. This research is applied research, which is directed at taking action in changing the state of competition and solving real environmental problems. Results of the study were the utilization of solid waste of fish offal, heads and bones into composts, the utilization of fish-steaming wastewater into a fish paste and the recycling of fish-washing wastewater using the filtration process. Solid and liquid waste were utilized in order to reduce the volume of waste generated which ultimately would result in increased productivity and environmental performance.

  24. THE INFLUENCE OF METHANE ON CLIMATE CHANGE Download Article

    O.E. Aksyutin, A.G. Ishkov, K.V. Romanov and V.A. Grachev
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (153-159)
    • No of Download = 330

    Abstract

    close

    The article presents a scientific analysis of the influence of methane on climate change. It has been shown that human influence is one order less than the impact of natural processes among which there is the circulation of the main greenhouse gas, H2O. The constant amount of H2O in the atmosphere is maintained by accelerating/decelerating the circulation cycle of water vapor. A similar mechanism of self-regulation has been shown in the article for methane as well. Its content in the atmosphere is adjusted by its natural short-period transformation in the atmosphere. A comparison of the methane impact on the climate based on analyzing the global warming potential and the potential for global temperature changes have shown that the methane equivalence coefficient in relation to CO2 can be estimated as 4-11 instead of 25 as it has been earlier evaluated. The analysis has shown that the methane circulation is a natural global process, and the human-induced egress of methane to the atmosphere has only a small effect on the climate. The influence of the oil and gas sector is 0.1% of the total emissions of greenhouse gases in the global evaluation and the share of methane of the Russian gas industry is 0.004%.

  25. EFFECT OF BUREAUCRACY ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE (CASE STUDY ON INDONESIAN REGENCY ROADS) Download Article

    Henri Siswanto, Harnen Sulistio, Ludfi Djakfar and Achmad Wicaksono
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (160-167)
    • No of Download = 315

    Abstract

    close

    Regency roads are currently the worst performing of all road networks in Indonesia despite being the majority within the Indonesian road network system distribution. To be able to properly handle road treatments, it is necessary to be aware of factors that influence regency road performance. Research on bureaucracy as a variable to improve the performance of regency roads in Indonesia has never been done before. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of bureaucracy on the performance of regency roads in Indonesia. Data collection was carried out by distributing questionnaires to as many as 54 respondents, consisting of officials at the Regency public works office in East Java Indonesia. The analysis method used in this research is the structural equation model - partial least square (SEM-PLS). Bureaucratic factors were analyzed along with four other factors that are postulated to be affecting regency road performance, namely; existing conditions, human resources, maintenance and rehabilitation funds, and the road treatment technique used. Research results showed that bureaucratic factors are the most critical in determining regency road conditions. Bureaucracy has the biggest effect on road performance. Bureaucracy has indirect effects of 0.268 to the road performance, it is higher than that of an existing condition. Meanwhile, the existing condition has an indirect effect of 0.147. Bureaucracy also has a direct influence on the placement of human resources and maintenance and rehabilitation funds. While maintenance and rehabilitation funds, human resources and existing road conditions affect road treatment processes. Lastly, road treatment directly affects road performance.

  26. VIRTAL MACHINE PLACEMENT OF CLOUD COMPUTING FOR ENERGY RESERVATION Download Article

    Yuthapong Somchit and Pragan Wattanasomboon
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (168-175)
    • No of Download = 289

    Abstract

    close

    Cloud computing has been widely deployed. The virtual machines (VMs) are created in servers upon the requests from users and they are deleted from the servers after the rental time expires. This is called dynamic workload condition. VMs should be consolidated into the servers to reduce the number of servers running VMs. Servers that do not have any VMs should be changed to sleep mode to reduce energy consumption. Therefore, VM scheduling which selects servers to run VMs has to find servers to place VMs and has to migrate servers under this dynamic workload condition. However, migration also consumes energy, so the number of migrations should be limited to save energy. In this paper, a VM scheduling method called Energy-Aware Scheduling Updating (ESU) which reduces total energy consumption in the data center is purposed. It chooses servers to create VMs. In addition, it updates the locations of VMs when changes occur while it limits the number of migrations to reduce energy consumption. The performance is of ESU is evaluated by computer simulation. The results show that ESU has a better performance considering energy consumption among the protocols used in the comparison.

  27. KINETIC MODEL OF ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION WITH CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE OF C-PHYCOCYANIN FROM S. PLATENSIS Download Article

    Phirunrat Thaisamak, Somkiat Jaturonglumlert, Jaturapatr Varith, Farah Saleena Taip and Chanawat Nitatwichit
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (176-183)
    • No of Download = 281

    Abstract

    close

    C-phycocyanin (CPC) from S. platensis has been reported as a great natural compound, which can be used as a natural colorant in food industries. The aims of this work were to demonstrate the potential of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction with controlled temperature (UAET). The UAET was used to improve the extraction efficiency, in terms of time, concentration and yield of the CPC. The operating parameters were investigated that are ultrasonic frequencies (28, 45 and 100 kHz) and controlled extraction temperatures (40, 45 and 50°C), and the best parameter values were identified. The first-order kinetic model was used to describe the mechanism of extraction under these processing parameters. The highest values of the concentration and yield were recorded by the UAET method that is 2.55 mg.ml-1 and 127.70 mg.g-1, respectively. The optimal extraction conditions were achieved at 30 min and 45°C of controlled temperature, with 100 kHz of ultrasonic frequency, and the solid-liquid ratio of 1:5 w/v. The kinetic parameters namely extraction rate constant, effective diffusivity and activation energy were proposed in this work that is 0.09 to 0.32 min-1, 1.11× 10-12 to 4.33 × 10-12 m2.s-1 and 28.76 to 47.39 kJ.mol-1 , respectively. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of the UAET, by providing an efficient method to produce the CPC extracts, with reduced time and energy, which has the potential for applications in the plant extractions.

  28. REVIEW OF CRITERIA ON MULTI CRITERIA DECISION MAKING (MCDM) CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS Download Article

    Imam Santoso, Suripin and Suseno Darsono
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (184-194)
    • No of Download = 267

    Abstract

    close

    The complexity of dam construction leads to special attention when it comes to constructing in terms of determining the priority scale of development if there are several alternative locations related to various criteria. These criteria include: technical (engineering), economic, social, cultural, environmental, legal, institutional and even political criteria. Some experts have pointed out that the selection of dams associated with the site requires significant empirical input from experts and specialists in the form of heuristic rules, expert opinions and conclusions, and applicable rules. This problem can be solved by using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approach. MCDM or Multiple-Criteria-Decision-Analysis (MCDA) is expressed as a decision-making method to establish the best alternative of a number of alternatives based on certain criteria. Some of the models included in the popular MCDM used today are Scoring Model, Analytic Herarchy Process (AHP), Analytic Network Process (ANP), Utility Model, Out Ranking Method, and Technique for Others Reference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and others. The application of MCDM in relation to the analysis of priorities for dam construction (best location determination) has also been developed. An appropriate method for determining the priority scale of dam construction is needed so that the built construct is based on complexity and multi-dimensions. This paper will discuss some of the studies that have been done in determining the priority scale of dam construction with the MCDM approach and will provide an overview of the possibility of further research that can be done.

  29. CHOICES MODELS OF TRIP CHAIN AND TRANSPORTATION MODE FOR INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS IN TOURISM DESTINATION ISLAND Download Article

    Putu Hermawati, Sakti Adji Adisasmita, Muhammad Isran Ramli and Sumarni Hamid
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (195-203)
    • No of Download = 274

    Abstract

    close

    Trip chain and mode choices take an important role in transportation and tourism planning in a tourist destination. This study analyzed the characteristic of individual and tourist trip to design models of trip chain and mode in Bali Island. These models are needed by the government and stakeholders in drafting regulations, innovation technology, marketing strategies, providing infrastructure and managing traffic. Data collection was conducted randomly through an interview-based questionnaire for international tourist to record daily trips. The significance analysis of independence variables used multinomial regression. The result shows the number of variables which significantly impacts trip chain and mode are age, education, number of visits, length of stay, distance, travel time and cost. Modeling used conditional regression. The model of trip chain shows that the increase in travel time and the cost will be considered to prefer less on the smallest chain or trip chain 2 choices, especially for repeater tourist. The probability is the more repetition visit of tourist in that island, it will be the number of trip chain chosen. On mode choice based on operator shows that tourists who have performed trip chain 2-4 have the highest probability was Rent-Car, whereas who completed trip chain 5 or more have the highest probability was Rent-Motorcycle. This result indicates a trend to transform of mode choice from car becoming motorcycle for the more number of the trip chain has been made in a similar operator. The more efficient modes needed for more number of trip chain with low cost and long distance.

  30. THE STRATEGIES TO REDUCE THE SPREAD OF NITROGEN FROM DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT TO THE STREAMS IN SURABAYA CITY, INDONESIA Download Article

    I Made Wahyu Wijaya, Eddy Setiadi Soedjono and Agus Slamet
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (204-210)
    • No of Download = 252

    Abstract

    close

    Wastewater belongs to one of the parts of sanitation objects. According to the studies, there is 7,98% of the area was categorized as very high-risk sanitation while 12,88% got high-risk sanitation. There is still 1 % of the society practicing open defecation in the sewerage, and 0,27% to the land. As the part of sanitation, provision of wastewater treatment is one of the efforts to reach the universal access of 100-0-100, which means achieving 100% served by proper sanitation. The pollution in the mainstream is caused by untreated domestic wastewater, which is directly discharged to the river. The wastewater services in Surabaya City by 2015 is 97,53% with 43 domestic wastewater installed. Surabaya City has some rules to manage and control the domestic wastewater. The effluent of domestic wastewater treatment is controlled by the rules with some parameters. The nitrogen content of the effluent in some domestic wastewater treatment was analyzed according to APHA. The strategies were described according to the local sanitation strategic in Surabaya City. This study showed that there were three out of seven units of ABR have a higher concentration of ammonium comparing with the national standard. Surabaya City has Sanitation Development Plan 2017, which is clearly describing the strategies plan for the domestic wastewater development 2017-2021. These strategies including the implementation of related local rules, increase of wastewater services, increase of knowledge, participation, and awareness of the society, increase the provision and access of sanitation supporting facilities, and optimization of sludge treatment in Surabaya City.

Pages