Articles

  1. FINITE STRAIN FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION OF COUPLED SOLID-FLUID MIXTURE FOR DYNAMIC PROBLEMS Download Article

    Bhuddarak Charatpangoon, Aiko Furukawa, Junji Kiyono, Shinya Tachibana, Tomohide Takeyama and Atsushi Iizuka
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-8)
    • No of Download = 465

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    Currently, finite element codes for small–strain have been widely applied in geotechnical engineering problems. However, the limitations of these codes are recognized, especially when the strain is large. To overthrow such limitations, finite–strain finite element code for porous media is needed. Therefore, this study aims to implement the finite element code for coupled solid-fluid at finite strain for static and dynamic problems. Firstly, the governing equation for porous media at finite–strain was introduced. Then, the mixed formulation of both phases with respect to the reference coordinates by deriving the governing equations with respect to the reference or current coordinates and by considering the solid and fluid as separate, was given. At present, the code is developed only for elastic regime as its preliminary step. In this study, the proposed code has been verified with the static and dynamic problem. And, the result of the finite–strain finite element code is then compared with the result of the analytical solution and small–strain finite element code within the small–strain regime. Thereafter, the proposed code was used to estimate the response of the earthen dam when subjected to a dynamic load. Finally, the results, discussion, and comparison between small– and finite–strain finite element analyses were presented.

  2. GEOCHEMICAL REACTIVE MODELING OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT PROCESS AT A MINE SITE IN NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA Download Article

    Michael Hayford and Bithin Datta
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (9-15)
    • No of Download = 312

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    Subsurface contamination of metals and radionuclides are common problems in abandoned mine sites. Metals and radionuclides are likely to occur in the mobile phase or may bind to soil particles and geologic framework. The transport process for reactive contaminants also includes chemical reactions in groundwater aquifers, which are complex physical and biogeochemical processes. Accurate tools to reliably predict the movement and changes in the concentration of metals and their daughter products (radionuclides) formations in the subsurface environment is important for decision makers to analyze the impact, and to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation strategies. An advanced numerical model can provide such useful direction for predictions. A 3-D contaminant transport model for fluid flow, hydrogeologic transport, and biogeochemical kinetic and equilibrium reactions in saturated and unsaturated media was calibrated, validated and implemented to model the hydrogeochemical processes that occur in the subsurface at such a complex contaminated site, consisting of waste rock dumps and flooded mine pits of this abandoned uranium mine site. The developed flow and transport simulation model for no longer in use mine site in Northern Territory of Australia is discussed.

  3. COMBINATION COAGULATION AND ADSORPTION PROCESSES FOR TREATING TEXTILE WASTEWATER IN HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRY Download Article

    Jareeya Yimrattanabavorn, Tharika Kaenjun, Watcharapol Wonglertarak and Boonchai Wichitsathian
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-21)
    • No of Download = 399

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    Textile wastewater is a considerable source of environmental contamination due to its strong color, high pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and low biodegradability. The discharge of textile wastewater not only has diverse aesthetic effects, but such discharge can be carcinogenic, mutagenic and generally detrimental to our environment. Thus, textile wastewater should be removed completely before they are discharged into received water. Many methods have been reported for treating textile wastewater, among which coagulation and adsorption are widely used processes due to their relatively simple operation and low cost and suitable for household industry. The aim of this study was using the combination coagulation and adsorption processes to treat textile wastewater in household-scale industry. Coagulation performance and removal efficiencies in COD and color from four varies sources of textile wastewaters were investigated. The effluent from coagulation was treated with adsorption. The adsorption isotherm and removal efficiencies were investigated. The results showed the combination processes had the overall COD were in the range of 72.9-93.8% and color removal efficiencies were in the range of 70.6-98.5%. The results of coagulation study were found that in some cases of wastewater were effective in color removal but failed in COD removal, in another case, had failed in color but were effective in COD removal efficiencies. The results showed varies of pH had much affected on color removal efficiencies more than COD removal efficiencies. The further experiments should be carried out to improve the combination removal efficiencies for application as suitable for textile household industry.

  4. CHANGES IN THE QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDWATER OF THE OSSETIAN ARTESIAN AQUIFER Download Article

    Vladislav Zaalishvili, Avtandil Dzhgamadze, Rudik Gogichev, Boris Dzeranov and Olga Burdzieva
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (22-30)
    • No of Download = 394

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    The basis for the research was the GIS project, which includes groundwater monitoring data on the territory of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. The paper presents generalized materials on fresh groundwater and comparative analysis of their quality change during water intake exploitation on the territory of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. Special geoinformation system (GIS) including groundwater parameters data for about 20 years of monitoring was developed. The results of chemical analyzes of groundwater for different years are systematized. The characteristics of deformation changes in aquifers and their relationship to surface waters are given. The evaluation of the groundwater protection against natural and anthropogenic pollution is given. The methodology for calculating of protective sanitary zones for water intakes with various hydrogeological conditions is developed, and measures for sanitary protection and revealing of pollution sources are offered (reasons for increasing hardness and mineralization of fresh groundwater in the industrial zone of Vladikavkaz city). Based on the investigation results, the conclusions on possible sources of hardness increase and deterioration of groundwater quality in the Ossetian artesian aquifer were drawn.

  5. EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF LIQUID HOT WATER SYSTEM AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRETREATMENT ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF CORN COB Download Article

    Supawan Upajak, Navadol Laosiripojana, Verawat Champreda, Torpong Kreethachart and Saksit Imman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (31-38)
    • No of Download = 381

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    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effectively enhance the increasing enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to fuels and chemicals in the biorefinery processes. In this study, effects of H2O2 on monomeric sugar in the liquid fraction during hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and sugar after enzymatic hydrolysis from corncobs were studied under varying reaction conditions. The temperature (30-120oC) and H2O2 concentration (2.5-10%) efficiently promoted sugar yield in the piqued fraction and improved enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated solids. The optimal condition for H2O2 pretreatment of corncob (H2O2 concentration of 5% using 60 oC for 2 h) increased hemicellulose solubilization into the aqueous phase, resulting into the maximized pentose yield of 61.88% (xylose + arabinose) in the aqueous phase. H2O2 pretreatment under the optimal conditions at 60oC for 2 h, leading to the enhance glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass using 10 FPU/g CelluclastTM (85.66 %) and small amount of formation of inhibitory by-products. Combined with glucose in the aqueous phase, this resulted in the maxima 95.61% glucose recovery from the native corncob. This was related to changes in crystallinity and surface area of the pretreated biomass. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed disruption of the intact biomass structure resulting increasing enzyme’s accessibility to the cellulose microfibers which showed higher crystallinity index compared to the native biomass as shown by X-ray diffraction with a marked increase in surface area as revealed by BET measurement. The results provided efficiency of H2O2 pretreatment on increasing sugar recovery and an efficient approach for its processing in biorefinery industry.

  6. SUSTAINABLE STRENGTH IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT CLAY STABILIZED WITH TWO SIZES OF RECYCLED ADDITIVE Download Article

    Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Bared, Indra Sati Hamonangan Harahap and Aminaton Marto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (39-46)
    • No of Download = 395

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    High amounts of ceramic waste is accumulated every year in the disposal and construction sites due to the rejection of all smashed, cracked, and broken tiles. The usage of recycled ceramic crushed tiles (RCT) in improving soft soil is considered an environmentally-friendly, economical and sustainable solution. Soft soils are characterized as problematic soils that are always associated with weak performance when loaded. It is a common practice to excavate, transport and dispose this kind of soil into landfills and replace it with a soil that meets the engineering requirements. Due to shortage of space in landfills and the high costs involved in this processes, soft soils are always treated at construction sites. In this study, two sizes of RCT (0.3 and 1.18 mm) are used to improve the physical and mechanical properties of soft soil. The size and percentage of RCT are investigated and its influence on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and compaction is evaluated. Microstructural tests included scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were also conducted on samples treated with RCT. Noticeable increment in both density and unconfined compressive strength was achieved. The maximum dry density increased from 1.59 Mg/m3 to 1.82 Mg/m3 and 1.77 Mg/m3 at the addition of 40% 1.18 mm and 0.3 mm RCT, respectively. Whereas the unconfined compressive strength increased from 50 kPa to 250 kPa and 225 kPa at 10% addition of 1.18 mm RCT and 40% 0.3 mm RCT, respectively. The optimum value of RCT to treat soft clay was found to be 10% and 40% for 1.18 mm and 0.3 mm RCT, respectively. The remarkable improvement in the strength of soil is due to the development of cementation compounds that acts as a binder between the RCT and soil particles. This study would help in reducing the impacts created by disposing of both problematic soil and waste tiles. Besides, cement is the most traditional material used to stabilize soil. This research would contribute to reducing the CO2 produced during the production of cement.

  7. STUDY OF COMPOST USE AS AN ALTERNATIVE DAILY COVERIN SUKAWINATAN LANDFILL PALEMBANG Download Article

    Yudi Hermawansyah, Febrian Hadinata and Ratna Dewi1 and Hanafiah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (47-52)
    • No of Download = 365

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    The Sukawinatan landfill has been operating with an open dumping for twenty-four years. To extend the operation of the landfill, the landfill mining concept is examined, using compost in the old landfill area as an Alternative Daily Cover. A series of tests on control parameters was performed to determine the suitability of compost as an alternative material. The tests were carried out include: grain size distribution, permeability, Standard Proctor compaction test, plasticity index, pH, temperature, BOD, COD and heavy metal content. The compost sample was taken randomly at two points within the old landfill zone. The sample was filtered through sieve No.04 to remove inert waste and the granules were more than 4.75 mm in diameter. There were five sample variants of compost tested. The soil was taken from one of the locations in Palembang city and identified as organic clays of medium to high plasticity (OH). Based on the results of the test, the compost in Sukawinatan landfill met the requirements in the aspects of liquid limit, plasticity index, clay fraction, bulk density, permeability, pH dan temperature. The results also showed that the heavy metal content (Pb and Cd) of the compost exceeded the requirements as an organic fertilizer, so if there is landfill mining activity in this landfill, the compost produced is only suitable as an Alternative Daily Cover.

  8. THE EFFECT OF UNLOADING AND RELOADING ON THE COMPRESSION BEHAVIOUR OF RECONSTITUTED CLAYS Download Article

    Farzad Habibbeygi and Hamid Nikraz
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-59)
    • No of Download = 378

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    Oedometer tests were carried out on reconstituted clays to investigate the compressibility of soft clays with high initial water content under repetitive cycles of unloading/reloading. It is necessary to estimate the compression indices under repetitive loadings to predict the settlement of clayey layers. The results indicate that the unloading/reloading loop can be represented by a bi-linear line in a semi-logarithmic plane with three definite slopes (compression indices). Furthermore, the compression indices of unloading and reloading can be estimated using the compression and swell indices with reasonable accuracy. The reloading part can also be defined by two initial and final slopes. The difference in these two aforementioned slopes can be explained by the balance of physico-chemical and mechanical forces. When the consolidation stress is less than the remolded yield stress, the compression behavior is mainly controlled by the physicochemical effect. In fact, the change in the clay micro-structure is small; however, for stresses greater than remolded yield stress, the soil structure demolishes and the clay microstructure is completely affected. Consequently, the mechanical force controls the deformation which results in a sharp decrease in the void ratio.

  9. HARMONIC WAVES ON AN ABRUPT TRANSITION Download Article

    Harman Ajiwibowo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (60-68)
    • No of Download = 340

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    A simple long-wave reflection and transmission over an abrupt depth change with constant channel width are presented. Firstly, the wave propagation is modeled on a two-step abrupt transition, and the waves are reflected and transmitted only once. The model is extended to include more than one re-reflection and retransmission as well as depth-limited breaking-wave height criteria. The Dean beach profile is also modeled. The profile is a function of the median grain size of the beach material. It is found that the wave energy is conserved when the waves are re-reflected and retransmitted more than five times. The breaking waves reduce the reflection coefficient by 30%. The results are compared with other research on the reflection coefficient occurring in a smooth sloping beach model. On a small sloping beach, an abrupt depth change gives a significant difference in the value of the reflection coefficient. The reflection coefficient on the smooth small sloping beach is close to zero, while the abrupt depth change can increase the reflection coefficient to about 60% in this case.

  10. MODELING OF TRIANGULAR UNIT HYDROGRAPHS USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN A TROPICAL RIVER BASIN Download Article

    Dony Faturochman Saefulloh, Iwan K. Hadihardaja and Dhemi Harlan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (69-76)
    • No of Download = 363

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    Rainfall-runoff models are crucial for estimating floods in a river basin. Most watersheds in Indonesia have a data deficiency problem, especially in natural watersheds (ungauged river basins), which may affect the accuracy of design and planning of water resources. Most synthetic unit hydrograph methods are not in accordance with the characteristics of Indonesian watersheds, and adjustments should be made to obtain accurate results. This study aimed to develop a simple triangular unit hydrograph generated by using a neural network for different watersheds in Indonesia. The triangular unit hydrograph consists of the peak discharge, time to peak, and time base developed using a neural network with a learning process from the observed unit hydrograph, and the result will be compared to the Snyder-Alexeyev synthetic unit hydrograph after being adjusted to obtain accurate results in comparison to observed data. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed by inputting basin characteristics such as catchment area (A), river length (L), basin slope (S), shape factor (F), and runoff coefficient (C). The model will generate the output of a triangular synthetic unit hydrograph consisting of peak discharge (Qp), time to peak (Tp), and time base (Tb). A case study is discussed in tropical river basins mostly on Java Island, where flood events are frequent. The simulation result from applying an ANN using generalized reduced gradient neural network (GRGNN) methods is significantly in line with historical data. The ANN simulation shows more accurate results than the adjusted Snyder-Alexeyev unit hydrograph. The results indicated that the synthetic unit hydrograph generated by an ANN can be applied to an ungauged river basin.

  11. NUMERICAL MODEL OF SEDIMENTATION AND WATER QUALITY IN KERINCI LAKE Download Article

    Harman Ajiwibowo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (77-84)
    • No of Download = 324

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    A study of Kerinci Lake in the Province of Jambi, Sumatera Island of Indonesia, is conducted to formulate future actions to conserve the area. The purpose of the study is to investigate the distribution of four parameters [total suspended sediment (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), and phosphate]. The study includes field measurements and a numerical model, resulting in a time series of spatial distributions of the hydro-environmental parameters mentioned. The numerical model is driven by discharges from six rivers and generated using a Surface-water Modeling System (called SMS). SMS consists of modules RMA2 for flow modeling, RMA4 for contaminant transport modeling, and SED2D for sedimentation modeling. The result of RMA2 shows an acceptable agreement with the water level and current velocity field measurement data. The model is then developed into a sedimentation and water quality model using SED2D and RMA4, resulting in a yearly change of the investigated parameters. The results show that Tebing Tinggi River outlet has the biggest yearly bed change of around 0.3 m, caused by the high TSS value in the river. The water quality model shows that the BOD, DO, and phosphate concentrations of Merao River outlet are as expected as it has significantly bigger discharges than the other rivers. It is recommended that local authorities provide wastewater treatment facilities, particularly in Merao River, to maintain the sustainability of Kerinci Lake.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MODEL PILE FOUNDATIONS IN SEASONALLY FREEZING SOIL GROUND Download Article

    Askar Zhussupbekov, Eun Chul Shin, Zhanbolat Shakhmov and Gulshat Tleulenova
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (85-90)
    • No of Download = 321

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    The bearing capacity and settlement of pile foundation were greatly influenced by the temperature variations of soil ground around pile foundation. This paper presented a short report about laboratory static load tests by model precast concrete piles (cross-section 4×4 cm and length of 60 cm) in seasonally freezing soil ground. The depth of frozen soil was 10 cm, temperature -5℃, -10℃, +20℃. There were many factors influencing pile foundations, such as ice in the ground, low temperatures and moisture of the soil. A series of tests of model piles in seasonally freezing soil ground were carried out, the results of bearing capacity of pile foundations and a settlement were compared. The results of the experiments were shown in charts. By application of numerical modeling the pile and soil base interaction vertical deformation in thermal changes of soil ground, the different settlement of piles. Modeling of thermal conditions of soils in software in accordance with real conditions on the construction site of Kazakhstan, analysis, and comparison of the obtained results of the settlement of pile foundations at low temperatures are presented in the paper.

  13. EFFECTS OF ALUMINIUM ADDITION ON INHIBITION OF CONCRETE EXPANSION RESULTED FROM ALKALI SILICA REACTION (ASR) Download Article

    Oratai Jongprateep, Napamas Jaroonvechatam, Thanawat Meesak and Suvimol Sujjavanich
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (91-97)
    • No of Download = 299

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    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the major causes of expansion, which ultimately leads to failure in concrete. When reactive concrete is subjected to humidity, alkali silicate hydrate gel (ASR gel) is formed. The swollen ASR gel exerts pressure and creates cracks in the concrete structure. This study, thus, aimed at inhibiting concrete expansion which was caused by the ASR reaction, by creating pores. To achieve pore formation, aluminium powder was used as an air entrainment agent. Mortar bars with aluminium content of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 weight percent of cement was tested according to the ASTM C1260: Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates. The results indicated that a larger quantity of entrained pores was achieved at higher aluminium content. The results also showed that when tested according to the ASTM C1260, concrete expansion was reduced as the aluminium content was increased. Microstructural analysis revealed that the entrained pores accommodated spaces for ASR gel, resulting in the decline of concrete expansion.

  14. DESIGN OF STILLING BASIN FOR DECREASING BACK WATER IN THE DAM FOOT Download Article

    Lily Montarcih Limantara, Dwi Priyantoro, Linda Prasetyorini and Robbi Darmawan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (98-105)
    • No of Download = 296

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    This research studies the hydraulic behavior and the problem solving alternatives of original until final design, and the most effective stilling basin and downstream regulator channel for decreasing back water from the upstream water level in the dam foot. The methodology consists of physical modeling in the Laboratory of River and Swamp, Department of Water Resources, Faculty of Engineering, University of Brawijaya. The methods include the USBR for the hydraulic analysis, the Hind’s formulation for the side channel analysis, the energy equation by analyzing the standard step for the transition and the chute way analysis, and the USBR type III for designing the stilling basin. A square cross-section with the Manning coefficient of 0.40 is used for determining the control of the Tail Water Level (TWL) and a trapezoidal cross-section with the Manning coefficient of 0.39 is used for the final design. However, the equation of Schotlisch and Veronise is used for the local scouring analysis. The result of Model Test and analysis indicates that there are some differences among the analysis in every point of the building. Therefore, the relative error is needed to know how big the error in the comparison result.

  15. STUDY ON SOUNDNESS EVALUATION OF BRIDGE SLABS BY FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER Download Article

    Hiroshi Higashiyama, Hiroyuki Mashito, Masaya Tsukamoto, Nagato Abe, Mikio Sekiguchi and Teruyuki Nagami
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (106-112)
    • No of Download = 272

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    In proper maintenance for bridge slabs, deflection measurement of bridge slabs by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is one of the soundness evaluation methods. The FWD is the non-destructive testing method for obtaining the slab deflections in-situ. In this research, we focused on the deflection area calculated from the deflection measurement as one of the soundness evaluation indexes for the bridge slabs and investigated it by elastic finite element (FE) analysis based on the thin plate theory simulating the fatigue damage by changing the flexural rigidity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. As the results, the deflection area in the transverse direction to the bridge axis correlated well with the deflection at the loading point, and the deflection area in the longitudinal direction was also found to be a good correlation with the deflection at the loading point by limiting its calculation length considering the characteristic of deflection curve. These relationships were similar not only in the simply supported slabs but also in the continuously supported slabs. Furthermore, in order to verify the analytical results, the deflection measurement was carried out on actual bridge slabs newly constructed. Then, the measured results had the same trend as the analytical results.

  16. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAM IN MODULAR SANDWICH PANELS FOR RAPID ASSEMBLY STRUCTURES Download Article

    Bijan Samali, Saeed Nemati, Phezhman Sharafi, Farzad Yaghmaei and Alireza Farrokhi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (113-120)
    • No of Download = 268

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    Mobile and rapidly assembled structures play an important role in building temporary and semi-permanent accommodations and shelters in post-disaster management. One of the most efficient construction systems that can be used in rapidly assembled buildings is lightweight panelized systems. Use of rapidly assembled panelized systems is becoming very popular for cutting the construction time and transportation costs that make them suitable options for rapid assembly construction. In addition, when acoustic and thermal insulation of buildings is important, foam filled composite sandwich panels are an effective solution. Soft, semi-rigid and rigid Polyurethane (PU) foams, which are first introduced into the market in the 1950s, are most popular types of foams. Regarding the research performed in the last decade, the structural behavior of PU foam filled sandwich panels has been investigated by several researchers worldwide. There is a need for a comprehensive feasibility studies on the use of rigid PU foam in structural sandwich panel cores so that various aspects of this material is deeply investigated. In this paper, a feasibility study carried out on a commercial type of rigid PU foam with trading name AUW763, to be used as the core material of sandwich panels, based on ASTM E1730-15. Results show AUW763 meets the standards requirements and specifications for building constructions.

  17. THE PERFORMANCE OF MICROPHYSICS SCHEME IN WRF MODEL FOR SIMULATING EXTREME RAINFALL EVENTS Download Article

    Pramet Kaewmesri,Usa Humphries and Pariwate Varnakovida
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (121-131)
    • No of Download = 254

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    In this research, microphysics scheme is one main important scheme to simulate high-resolution rainfall and extreme rainfall event. It has impacted increase natural or relating to aerosols in the atmosphere. It can modify climate in the atmosphere because it can change precipitation efficiency. This research, two microphysics schemes (Lin scheme and WSM6 scheme) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to simulate three extreme rainfall events over Thailand with three nested domains. The innermost domain was 4 km × 4 km and covered Thailand area. The results of extreme rainfall events given by the simulations from two microphysics schemes can be compared with the trend of rainfall spatial distribution from the TRMM data. The spatial pattern results of extreme rainfall events given by the two microphysics schemes. It can capture the trend of extreme spatial rainfall distribution with TRMM data. The statistical comparison was supported by the spatial pattern. It was shown the value less than 0 almost three cases that mean the results from the simulation were underestimate than TRMM data. However, the statistical comparison was shown a good trend from two microphysics scheme. In general, the trend of rainfall from two microphysics schemes of the WRF model good approximately extreme rainfall three cases with TRMM data over Thailand.

  18. SEALING GEOMATERIAL FOR COASTAL DISPOSAL FACILITY USING MARINE CLAY WITH THE ADDITION OF A SMALL AMOUNT OF CEMENT Download Article

    Ooki Kurihara, Yoshito Takaoka, Takashi Tsuchida, Takuya Shiraga, Ryota Hashimoto, and Takahiro Kumagai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (132-139)
    • No of Download = 255

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    For secure construction and operation of a coastal waste disposal facility on a sandy seafloor, the proper bottom sealing material is one of the controlling factors. The conventional sealing material cannot mobilize enough strength against the load by covering soil and landfilling, and the ordinary cement-treated clay also has a drawback of crack generation due to shear deformation. To overcome these disadvantages of the conventional materials, the clay with the addition of a small amount of cement (CASC) was proposed as a new sealing geomaterial. Since the cement content of CASC is about 2-4%, which is lower than the minimum cement content required for strength mobilization of general cement-treated clay, it is expected to keep ductile property after the long-term consolidation. To examine the performance of CASC, a series of experimental studies (vane shear test, consolidation test, and hollow cylinder torsional permeability test (HCTPT)) was conducted for Tokuyama Port clay. The vane shear tests proved that CASC exhibits the strength development up to 3 kPa under unconsolidated condition after curing. The consolidation tests showed that the cement addition reduces the compressibility of the clay, and consequently, relatively large void ratio induces the increase in hydraulic conductivity, but CASC still could satisfy the sealing requirement. The HCTPTs revealed that hydraulic conductivity of CASC does not increase even if large shear deformation is applied while the lean-mix cement-treated clay shows permeability increase due to the crack. Considering above results, CASC was concluded to be a feasible option for the artificial sealing.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF HYDRO-ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION USING NUMERICAL MODELING IN DIBAWAH LAKE, WESTERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA Download Article

    Harman Ajiwibowo, R.H.B. Ash-Shiddiq and M.B. Pratama
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (140-146)
    • No of Download = 312

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    This study investigates the hydro-environmental condition of Dibawah Lake, Province of Western Sumatra, Indonesia, using a finite element model called the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). The aim is to present the parameters distribution in the existing condition and a year later. Field measurements are carried out to supply data for the domain input, boundary conditions, and model validation. The field measurements are lake-bed elevation, water level, current flow, and contaminant quantity measurements. The contaminant measurements are carried out to collect biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), sulfide, and total suspended sediment (TSS). The existing flow model is validated by current flow and water elevation field data. The validation shows a decent agreement. The result of water quality modeling, using the water quality module of SMS called RMA4, shows that after a year the BOD content is still in an acceptable proportion, which is less than 2 mg/liter. However, it is found that the sulfide content exceeds the limit defined by the government regulation, at over 0.002 mg/liter. In the sedimentation model generated by the module in SMS called SED2D, the maximum bed change obtained is around 15 cm, located at the inlet of two rivers connected to the lake. The proposed mitigation of the current research findings is to control the use of fertilizer around the lake watershed area with the aim of lowering the sulfide content and to maintain the lake bed elevation by routine dredging, particularly in the river inlets.

  20. INFLUENCE OF INITIAL IMPERFECTION ON ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF T-SECTION STEEL COMPRESSION MEMBERS Download Article

    Mya Nan Aye, Liu Zhipeng, Akira Kasai and Mitsuhiro Shigeishi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (147-153)
    • No of Download = 275

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    The slenderness ratio is one of the most important factors for the steel compression members and the initial displacement and residual stress are most widely used in practical fields while considering initial imperfection factors as they show significant influence in the decreasing of the ultimate strength. Present work emphasizes on the capacity analysis of T-section steel compression member with the initial imperfection to predict the ultimate strength of T-section members as there were some difficulties in fully understanding and introducing initial imperfection into 3D FE models. To fulfill the goal, finite element models with different slenderness ratios are considered to assess the good accuracy in numerical results and ultimate strength formulae of T-section steel compression members are established for both beam and shell element models. Comparison between numerical results of current work and some design strength such as JSBH 2012, AASHTO 2010, etc., were performed to confirm the agreement between current work and existing design strength. Moreover, the influence of initial displacement and residual stress on beam and shell element models was investigated. The parametric study of relative loads Vs relative displacement due to initial imperfection regarding slenderness ratio was also presented. According to the numerical analyses results, initial displacement affects more in beam element models and residual stresses affect more in shell element models. For the models considering both initial imperfection factors, effects in shell elements models are more dominant. The ultimate stresses get form present study’s formula show slightly higher values than the design strength of existing codes.

  21. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) MODELLING OF CONCRETE MIXED WITH WASTE CERAMIC TILES AND FLY ASH Download Article

    Kenneth Jae T. Elevado, Joenel G. Galupino and Ronaldo S. Gallardo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (154-159)
    • No of Download = 292

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    Waste generation has been the result of a growing demand in the construction industry. Thus, waste utilization has been one of the considerations in the construction industry towards sustainability. In the Philippines setting, many types of research were conducted to support the claim that wastes such as fly ash and waste ceramics have properties that are comparable to cement and aggregates. The American Concrete Institute standards were referred to in the mix design of the specimens. This study incorporated the use of fly ash in the replacement of Type 1 Portland Cement and the substitution of waste ceramic tiles in replacing gravel as the coarse aggregates. Moreover, specimens were also subjected to varying days of curing to assess their strength development. Machine learning, namely Artificial Neural Network (ANN), was considered since there was an available wide range of data. This study aimed to provide an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm that will serve as a model to predict the compressive strength of concrete while incorporating waste ceramic tiles as a replacement to coarse aggregates while varying the amount of fly ash as a partial substitute to cement. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model used was validated to ensure the predictions are acceptable.

  22. DEVELOPMENT OF A UNIFIED MODEL OF GEOINFORMATION SYSTEM FOR CITY PLANNING AND INTEGRATION Download Article

    Zaalishvili V.B., Kanukov A.S., Melkov D.A., Makiev V.D., Dzobelova L.V.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (160-166)
    • No of Download = 297

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    On the basis of modern technologies, an information database of seismicity and seismic risks has been created in the information system designed for city planning which includes maps of detailed seismic zoning (DSZ) of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and the map of seismic microzonation (SMZ) of the territory of Vladikavkaz. Evaluation methods of social and economic losses from possible earthquakes of different intensity are considered and a methodology for seismic risk assessment is developed. An algorithm for introducing the methodology for seismic risk assessment into information systems designed for city planning is proposed on their basis. Developed system is easily modernized and is the basis of a modern constantly updated information database that combines the results of all directions of the city planning for the cities and populated areas of North Ossetia, and it can also include any information that has a spatial reference, which makes it possible to include organically these data to the Federal All-Russian Information System.

  23. VOLCANIC ERUPTION PRODUCTS AND ITS SLOPE STABILITY IN MERAPI VOLCANO, YOGYAKARTA Download Article

    Purwanto, Zufialdi Zakaria, Eko Teguh Paripurno and Boy Yoseph CSSSA
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (167-172)
    • No of Download = 312

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    Banjarsari Village, of Cangkringan Sub District, Sleman Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta (110°28’04” E, 7°39’11” S), in the geomorphological system, is known as the middle volcanic slope located in the southern area of Merapi Mount, as it is formed by the pyroclastic and lahar deposits. Such condition is attributed to the emergence of sand and stone quarries at many points. On this account, this research aims to identify the potency and type of mass movement on the sand-stone quarry deposits, in order to determine the best mitigation endeavor against the mass movement disaster. Methods of research in use are direct field observation, measurement of the type and position of the stratification, and slope dimension. Furthermore, soil mechanic laboratory analysis was done to the soil sample, consisting of bulk density of the soil (γ), cohesion parameter (c) and friction angle (Ø). The analysis of Safety Factor (FS) was done by using Geo-Slope version 9.0.3 software, aiming to define its stability class. This research resulted in 2 potential locations of a mass movement with debris slide type. According to the analysis of slope stability on the two location, it was revealed that these slopes were categorized into the unstable class with FS= 0.799, in the pyroclastic deposits and for the other location the slope was categorized into the critical classes with FS value = 1.117 in the lahar deposits. The main driving factor of mass movement was the increasing soil mass due to the effect of rainfall.

  24. CONTROLLING SEAWATER INTRUSION BENEATH SEMARANG COASTAL URBAN CITY USING GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY AND HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY DATA Download Article

    Thomas Triadi Putranto, Wahju Krisna Hidajat and Kevin Alexander
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (173-179)
    • No of Download = 318

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    As the largest areas in Central Java Province, Semarang has experience coastal inundation from local flood inundation, river flood and sea water tide flood. Moreover, the city experiences long-term seawater intrusion. Investigation of seawater intrusion is a must to control the actual condition. Geophysical survey will provide a subsurface condition that combines the hydrogeochemistry data in controlling seawater intrusion. Resistivity data was collected using the Wenner array. The RMS error computed for iterations of the resistivity value varying from 7.7 to 40.4% with the total depth up to 39.6 m depth in the inverse model resistivity section. Based on the geoelectrical profile, 5 of 10 locations, i.e. SMG-1, SMG-2, SMG-3, SMG-5, and SMG-7 conducted very low resistivity value. The maximum Electrical Conductivity/EC value was 8,810 μS/cm. Integrated Geophysical survey and hydrogeochemical analyses provided the study area into three groups related to the seawater intrusion which are uninfluenced, moderate influenced, and highly influenced.

  25. MONITORING THE TRIGGERING OF LIQUEFACTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING Download Article

    Erica Elice Saloma Uy, Toshihiro Noda, Kentaro Nakai and Jonathan Rivera Dungca
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (180-187)
    • No of Download = 334

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    In recent studies triggering or initiation of liquefaction is usually performed to characterize the potential of the soil to liquefy. Its behavior before, during and after liquefaction in a laboratory test needs to be understood. Image processing was implemented to monitor the triggering of liquefaction and estimate the cyclic shear strain that would trigger liquefaction. Lucas and Kanade pyramidal optical flow algorithm were used to track the movement of the soil. A mirrorless camera was the instrument used. The strain-controlled consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test was performed. The loose condition was tested at 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8 mm strain amplitudes. The confining pressures used were 50, 100 and 200 kPa. Based on the results, the estimated values for the cyclic shear strain that would trigger liquefaction had a range of values due to the occurrence of non-homogeneous deformation. The minimum values were in agreement with the typical values while the maximum values were larger. For the behavior of the soil before, during and after liquefaction had occurred, the deformation behavior was different. More deformations were observed after the triggering of liquefaction.

  26. STRESS-STRAIN-DILATANCY RELATIONSHIPS OF NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED DHAKA CLAY Download Article

    Muhammad Abdur Rahman, Hossain Md Shahin and Teruo Nakai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (188-194)
    • No of Download = 336

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    In this paper, stress-strain-dilatancy relationships of normally consolidated Dhaka clay is presented. Two constitutive models Cam-clay model (both original and modified) and sub loading tij model are used in this paper. To obtain the parameters, drained triaxial tests of saturated cylindrical specimens under compression is conducted. One dimensional consolidation test is also conducted to obtain other model parameters namely compression index and swelling index. Total four sets of the undisturbed specimen are prepared where each set contains two specimens. Consolidated drained triaxial compression tests are conducted on first three test sets and thereby stress-dilatancy relation in compression condition is evaluated. To understand the behavior in extension one-dimensional consolidation test and drained triaxial test are performed on the test set four to obtain the model parameters. It is observed from the stress-dilatancy relationship that, sub loading tij model can well describe the stress-dilatancy behavior of normally consolidated Dhaka clay than that of the Cam-clay model both in compression and extension conditions. In compression condition, sub loading tij model presents almost a unique stress-dilatancy relationship for all three sets of specimens. Also in extension condition, a unique relationship between stress and dilatancy is observed where Cam-clay model failed to describe it uniquely. Therefore, sub loading tij model can be used with better accuracy for the Dhaka clay.

  27. MINING CAUSED POLLUTION OF THE NATURAL LANDSCAPE Download Article

    Burdzieva O.G., Alborov I.D., Tedeeva F.G., Makiev V.D. and Glazov A.P.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (195-200)
    • No of Download = 373

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    The results of the negative impact of mining and metallurgical production on the natural environment are presented in the article. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of the heavy metal speciation in sediments to assess the potential ecological risk associated with anthropogenic waste deposits. An analysis of the factors of the negative impact of the extraction and processing of geomaterials on the components of the natural environment was made in the course of the research. The work reveals a fragmented degradation of the landscape under the influence of the actual production and surface infrastructure of the mining and metallurgical complex. It is shown that the violation of the required sanitary-technical and environmental requirements for the disposal of mining and metallurgical waste leads to dangerous pollution and deformation of the components of the natural environment. Whereas, the long-term functioning of the deformed natural and anthropogenic system leads to unpredictable hazardous consequences, manifested in the development of little-known diseases of the population that lives in the zone of activity of such objects. It is shown that the environmental hazard of a natural and industrial system in mountainous terrain, in comparison with similar flat systems, increases significantly, which implies that additional measures are needed to ensure environmental safety. Moreover, the characteristics of the waste landfills for ore and concentrates processing as well as other materials are given in the paper.

  28. RESERVOIR COMPARTMENT ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY OF BANGKO AND BEKASAP FORMATION, CENTRAL SUMATRA BASIN INDONESIA Download Article

    Abdul Haris, Raden Sigit Anindya, Tito Latif Indra and Agus Riyanto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (201-208)
    • No of Download = 389

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    The reservoir compartment assessment for a case study of the Agur field, Central Sumatra Basin has been successfully carried out by using fault seal analysis (FSA). The objective of this paper is to asses subsurface fault properties in term of the fault sealing that was defining the hydrocarbon reservoir compartment. In this work, the FSA was performed by integrating juxtaposition, shale gouge ratio (SGR) and transmissibility analysis over fault plane that was identified within reservoir layers on the Bangko and Bekasap formation. The juxtaposition seal is intended to assess how the reservoir layer is juxtaposed across the fault plane over either reservoir or non-reservoir layer. The SGR analysis is applied to estimate the shale content in the fault plane, which is caused by the fault movement of sequence stratigraphy. The last analysis of transmissibility is carried out to calculate the capacity of a reservoir to drain the hydrocarbon through a fault plane. Faults architecture (throw, heave, and orientation) and the reservoir layer target were identified based on 3D seismic and well log data interpretation. The FSA is applied to nine faults that formed nine reservoir compartments within three reservoir layers, which are obtained from 3D seismic and well log interpretation. The fault characteristics were classified and the fault seal distribution map was produced to identify the reservoir connectivity among the faults. The FSA results show that nine identified compartments in the first reservoir layer are clustered into five compartments. In addition, the FSA clustered nine identified compartments in the second reservoir layer into four compartments. In contrast, nine compartments in the third reservoir layer were connected each other that are clustered into one compartment. These results are useful not only for evaluating future hydrocarbon traps but also for future field development.

  29. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CORNCOB ASH-BASED LATERITIC INTERLOCKING AND SANDCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS Download Article

    Solomon Oyebisi, Anthony Ede, Olatokunbo Ofuyatan, John Oluwafemi and Isaac Akinwumi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (209-216)
    • No of Download = 227

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    The high cost of conventional walling materials, increase in emission of CO2 due to cement production and improper disposal of corncob lead to persistent bottlenecks in low-cost and sustainable housing delivery, environmental pollution, and agricultural wastage respectively. This study investigates the use of corncob ash (CCA) as cement additive in producing lateritic interlocking blocks (LIB) and compares its physical characteristics and production cost with Sandcrete hollow block (SHB). Portland limestone cement (PLC) was replaced by CCA in varying percentages 5, 10 and 15%. The density, compressive strength and water absorption of the blocks were determined and compared with the Nigerian standard requirements and specifications. The experimental results showed optimal strength at 3% PLC and 10% CCA with a compressive strength of 4.13MPa, water absorption of 6.60% and density of 1869.47Kgm-3 at 28 days curing for LIB. For 450mm × 225mm × 225mm SHB, compressive strength, water absorption and density at 28 days curing were 3.86MPa, 4.69%, and 1849.95Kgm-3 respectively. All the blocks produced satisfied the recommendations of both the Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute and the Nigerian Industrial Standards. The cost per square meter of SHB and LIB was 4.62 USD and 2.35 USD respectively. The experimental results indicated that LIBs have better strength and are cheaper than SHBs. Recycling of CCA as a supplement material seems to be a feasible solution not only to the problem of adopting indigenous waste material in the production of LIB but also to the environmental problem.

  30. DIFFERENT BEHAVIOUR OF CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR TUNNELS UNDER THE IMPACT OF EARTHQUAKES: A CASE STUDY FROM THE TUNNEL OF HANOI METRO SYSTEM Download Article

    Gospodarikov Alexandr and Thanh Nguyen Chi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (217-224)
    • No of Download = 350

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    Currently, the metro system is built in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. Hanoi's metro system was designed to be shallow that of near-surface (with an average depth of ground is H = 20 m). Hanoi is located in the Northern part of Vietnam, where it can be influenced by the highest magnitude of earthquakes is up to Mw = 6.5 Richter, so the study of the effects of earthquakes to the tunnel's stability in the Hanoi metro system is necessary. The paper studied and calculated for two cases of the tunnel’s cross-section of the Hanoi metro system is circular and rectangular under effects of the earthquake, this has been the strongest earthquake may have the impact to Hanoi. Based on the results obtained, the paper has given comments on the effects of earthquakes to tunnel’s stability in studies of two case and given suggests about the cross-section shape of the tunnel in Hanoi metro system that may be used to under the effect of the earthquakes.

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