Articles

  1. DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETIC REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER AS A TOOL OF HARVESTING VIBRATION ENERGY ON VEHICLE Download Article

    Hasan Maksum, Wawan Purwanto and Wanda Afnison
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-7)
    • No of Download = 236

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    This paper discusses vibration energy on the vehicles shock absorber which was converted to electrical energy by using magnet and coil. Principally, vibration energy on the shock absorber will be wasted into friction and heat form. But, in this study are able to obtain the vibration energy and utilize it as a new energy source for the vehicle by adding the mechanism of harvesting energy electromagnetic type. Linear movement of the shock absorber is captured by electromagnetic generator mechanisms which consist of a coil and a permanent magnet. The produced output of the electromagnetic generator can be used as new energy source for the vehicle. The mechanism of harvesting energy used electromagnetic generator was chosen through literature study that has been done by the researcher. Furthermore, the electromagnetic generator obtained the smallest of energy loss. The experimental measurement used galvanometer, the results were obtained that the resurrection energy was 2.5 mV on 1.5 Hz, 4.24 mV on 2.0 Hz, and 5.6 mV on 2.5 Hz on excitation frequency.

  2. EFFECT OF ARM SWING EXERCISES ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE AND BALANCE OF OLDER WOMEN Download Article

    Worawut Chompoopan and Piyathida Kuhirunyaratn
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (8-13)
    • No of Download = 229

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    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of arm swing exercises (ASE) on cardiovascular response and dynamic body balance of older women. 4 villages were randomly selected. The total population was 128 participants divided into 64 older women from two villages in the experimental group, another 64 older women from another two villages in the control group. The experimental group participated in the evening ASE program, five days a week, lasted for six months. The ASE program began with warming up for 5 minutes, swinging arms for 30 minutes, and gradually cooling down for another 5 minutes. Data collection consisted of pre and post-data collection before and after six months of the ASE program exercise. The collected data were validated by the experienced researcher. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean of both groups before participating in the ASE program. An intention-to-treat analysis was used for last observation carried forward missing data. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the mean of both groups and Paired t-test within the group. After 6 months of exercising, the cardiovascular response and body balancing of both groups were measured. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of participants in the experimental group were declined at 5.64 and 6.72 mmHg. respectively while there was only slightly changed in the control group of which statistically was not significant. In addition, the resting heart rates of the participants in the experimental group declined to 6.76 beats /minute and their body balancing has improved. Therefore, the ASE program can be effective to improve BP, HR, and body balancing of older women.

  3. THE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF FOOT MASSAGE WITH COCONUT SHELL ON PRESSURE PAIN THRESHOLD AND FOOT GRIP STRENGTH IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A PILOT STUDY Download Article

    Laojeenwong P. and Eungpinichpong W.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (14-19)
    • No of Download = 181

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    Feet are very important parts of the body because they carry almost all of the body weight and contribute to human locomotion. Daily works in prolonged standing position may cause foot pain and fatigue easily. Currently, foot massage with coconut shells has been practiced in some eastern countries to relieve foot pain and fatigue for a long time without sufficient scientific evidence. This study aimed to preliminarily determine the immediate effects of a foot massage with coconut shell on pressure pain threshold and foot grip strength in healthy subjects. Thirteen healthy volunteers, who worked in standing position mostly, participated in the study and received a 5-minute session of foot massage using coconut shells. Pressure pain threshold and foot grip strength were measured before and 2 minutes after the foot massage. The results showed that foot massage with coconut shells could increase pressure pain threshold and foot grip strength significantly (P<0.05). We suggested that foot massage with coconut shells may raise pressure pain threshold of the feet and provide better effort on foot muscles contraction. Further study with a randomized controlled trial was recommended to verify these effects.

  4. MASSAGE COMBINED WITH MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE COULD IMPROVE HEIGHT OF SEPAKTAKRAW SERVES Download Article

    Apichat Deeminoi. Wichai Eungpinichpong. Maitree Pakarasang and Thanarat Sripongngam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (20-25)
    • No of Download = 150

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    Flexibility of hamstring muscles is very important in the height of Sepaktakraw serves. The most beneficial type of stretching of lower limb muscles for this sport has not been verified. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of applied Thai massage combined with muscle energy technique (ATMMET) versus passive static stretching technique (PSST) on hamstring flexibility and the height of a Sepaktakraw serve. One hundred and eight healthy Sepaktakraw amateur athletes were randomly allocated to 3 comparison groups. Subjects in the ATMMET group and the PSST group received a 10 min session of corresponding intervention, whereas the subjects in the control group sat on a chair without intervention for the same period of time. Passive straight leg raise test (PSLR) and the height of Sepaktakraw serves were measured at 3 consecutive periods, consisting of pre-test, post-test, and 24 hours after intervention. An analysis of two-way repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a statistically significant difference in hamstring flexibility and the height of Sepaktakraw serves in both intervention groups but not in the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the three groups (p >0.05). We conclude that both ATMMET and PSST may improve hamstring flexibility and the height of a Sepaktakraw serve immediately.

  5. EFFECTS OF KAEMPFERIA PARVIFLORA ON PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSES IN ADULTS Download Article

    Wichai Eungpinichpong, Uraiwan Chatchawan, Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai, Suwanna Arunpongpaisal and Warangkana Chompoopan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (26-31)
    • No of Download = 132

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    Although Kaempferia parviflora (K. parviflora) has been known as one of health-promoting herbs, a clinical trial is needed to confirm its beneficial effect on stress reduction. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Kaempferia parviflora on the physiological and psychological stresses. Eighty healthy adult participants with moderate stress level were randomly allocated into two groups; either ingested with extracted Kaempferia parviflora at doses of 360 mg/day for 14 days (Kaempferia parviflora group) or placebo capsules (placebo group). The results indicated both groups had significantly decreased stress based upon Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Suanprung Stress Test-20 (SPST-20). Heart rate variability measures exhibited non-significant between-group comparison, except RMSSD and LF/HF of which the placebo group had significantly lower and higher respectively than the Kaempferia parviflora group. This study suggests that Kaempferia parviflora may be useful for both physiological and psychological stress reduction.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF POLY(D, L-LACTIC ACID) WITH POLYBENZOXAZINE VIA SOLUTION BLENDING Download Article

    Kansiri Pakkethati and Yodthong Baimark
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (32-37)
    • No of Download = 125

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    Polybenzoxazine was synthesized by using bisphenol A, formaldehyde and diamine as precursor via condensation reaction. Triethylenetetramine was used as diamine precursor. Polybenzoxazine was characterized by FTIR technique in order to confirm the obtained polybenzoxazine. The ratio of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/polybenzoxazine (Mw = 10,000 and 20,000 g/mol) was 0:100, 1:99, 3:97 and 5:95, respectively. The poly(D, L-lactic acid)/polybenzoxazine films were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed homogenous and smooth films. Thermal stability of poly(D, L-lactic acid)/polybenzoxazine films was better than pure polybenzoxazine film. Moreover, 3:97 ratio of polybenzoxazine mixed with poly(D, L-lactic acid) (Mw = 20,000 g/mol) film showed good tensile strength, because the stress at break was 24.06 ± 7.99 when determined by Universal Tenting Machine. It was concluded that poly(D, L-lactic acid) improved the property of the polybenzoxazine film.

  7. FISH CATCH QUOTA ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE FISHERIES RESOURCES IN EAST JAVA Download Article

    Alfan Jauhari, Defrian Marza Arisandi, Abu Bakar Sambah and Wildan Alfarizi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (38-44)
    • No of Download = 128

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    Fish resources Information urgently needed by development planners in fisheries sectors, especially for fisheries development. The fisheries resources utilization in East Java tends to be overexploited. This caused uncertainty of fishing activities for the traditional fishermen in the East Java waters. Some studies of population dynamics and fish stock assessment described fisheries resources exploitation in some areas of East Java was on fully exploited to overexploited condition. The aim of this research were; [1] to know sustainable potential and total allowable catch of fisheries resources in the area of Pasuruan regency, Probolinggo Regency, and Banyuwangi regency; [2] tho know the utilization status of fisheries resources in the area of Pasuruan regency, Probolinggo Regency, and Banyuwangi regency; and [3] to determine the empowerment strategy for fishermen community in order to utilize fisheries resources in the area of Pasuruan regency, Probolinggo Regency, and Banyuwangi regency. The analyses were done through the calculation of sustainability potential, and total allowable catch, and determine the controlling strategy of fisheries resources utilization. The study described that the comparison analysis of fishing trip data, fish catch and total allowable catch in the sustainable condition was in the overexploited condition. Moreover, based on the analysis of fisheries resources utilization status in the research area, the controlling strategy was created based on the recommendation of all stakeholders. This strategy including the management of the fishing area, management of fishing time, and determine if alternative activities in the scope of both fisheries and non-fisheries sectors. These strategies can be used as a basic data in determining an empowerment strategy for fishermen in the fisheries resources utilization. These strategies including accompaniment approach and information services through community and ecosystem-based of fisheries resources management.

  8. USE OF INSECTICIDE-TREATED NETS AMONG PIG OWNERS LIVING IN JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS ENDEMIC AREAS OF NORTHERN MYANMAR Download Article

    Aung Kyaw Soe, Cheerawit Rattanapan, Somsak Wongsawass and Orapin Laosee
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (45-50)
    • No of Download = 132

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    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia and the Western Pacific region. This study was carried out to explore the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent JE among pig owners in the high endemic area of Kachin State, Myanmar. A total of 420 pig owners were interviewed by trained research assistants between March and May 2016. The majority of the respondents were farmers with low family income, living in poor housing conditions. Pig-raising by respondents was mainly categorized as closed-type (75%), those pigs were kept in sties close to the house at night. Analysis indicated that less than a quarter (21%) of family members slept under insecticide-treated nets at night. Households with five or fewer members, owning more than two ITNs were more likely to use them at night (AOR: 3.71; 95% CI: 2.07–6.62) (AOR: 5.47; 95% CI: 3.20–9.33). This study highlighted the capability to provide ITNs for all family members as a critical issue to prevent the JE virus. Initiation of strategies to expand interdisciplinary collaborations and communication in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment should take place. Availability of vaccines must be reconsidered as they are important in prevention and control of JE.

  9. FABRICATION OF POLYETHERSULFONE MEMBRANES USING NANOCARBON AS ADDITIVE Download Article

    Nasrul Arahman, Mukramah, Syawaliah, Teuku Maimun and M. R. Bilad
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (51-57)
    • No of Download = 347

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    Membrane-based processes have become the most dominant technology for water or wastewater treatment. To maintain optimum performance, a membrane should have high permeability and selectivity, good hydrophilicity, in combination with stable mechanical properties. Generally, the membrane produced from pure polyethersulfone (PES) has good mechanical properties, but low hydrophilicity. Modifications of the PES membrane with hydrophilic additives can increase its hydrophilicity. Nevertheless, incorporating additives may decrease its mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to enhance the overall properties of PES membrane by incorporating nanocarbon as an additive. The goal is to obtain a membrane with high permeability and selectivity, good hydrophilicity, as well as superior mechanical properties. Four PES membranes were equipped via the dry-wet inversion method using two solvents (n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). The nanocarbon additive was fabricated from palm fruit-shell biomass wastes. The results show that the type of solvent affects the pore structure of the membrane surface. The membranes prepared using the PES-NMP system have dense structures with small nodules that appear in the upper skin layer, while the membranes from the PES-DMSO system have a spherulite-like structure. The membrane structures changed significantly when the nanocarbon particles were added to the polymer solution, particularly in terms of the shape and size of the microvoids. The finger-like structure found in the membranes prepared from PES-NMP or PES-DMSO systems disappears after the nanocarbon was added to the system. Furthermore, the accretion of nanocarbon to the polymer system increases the water permeability, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties of the resulted membrane.

  10. ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY BEFORE AND AFTER NUTRIENT DIVERSION AND REVETMENT CONSTRUCTION IN LAKE FUKAMI-IKE, JAPAN Download Article

    Hiromi Suda, Masaaki Tanaka, Maki Oyagi and Akihiko Yagi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (58-62)
    • No of Download = 146

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    Lake Fukami-ike is a small eutrophic lake, to improve the water quality of the lake, a lake management project was carried out in 1992. This project involved nutrient diversion and revetment construction along the lake shore. A biotope was built near the lake in 2000. As a result, although the inorganic nitrogen in the lake decreased considerably, chlorophyll-a (phytoplankton) increased slightly. The zooplankton community in the lake before the project in 1978-1979 predominantly comprised large-sized species (about 1.8 mm), however, small-sized species (about 0.1-0.2 mm) were dominant after in 2013-2015. The reason for the decrease of the large-sized zooplankton was thought to be the possibility of losing habitat space because aquatic macrophytes of the littoral zone were filled up when revetment construction built in 1992. We compared the body length and composition of zooplankton community between the lake (nearly emergent plants on the lake shore) and the biotope (emergent and floating-leaved plant cover). Large-sized zooplankton (about 0.9-1.2 mm) were dominant in the biotope, and size distribution did not differ in 1978-1979. The presence of developed aquatic macrophytes was suggested to promote the survival of large zooplankton.

  11. PEDESTRIAN SPACE CAPACITY AND MOVEMENT PATTERN FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS IN URBAN AND RURAL AREA Download Article

    Febriane Paulina Makalew, Sakti Adji Adisasmita, Shirly Wunas and Sumarni Hamid Aly
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (63-69)
    • No of Download = 212

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    Elementary students as children pedestrians on their journeys to school, demonstrate the way they use space and movement pattern. Their unique space used can be seen on the pedestrian pathway in which safety should be the priority. Study space capacity of children pedestrian pathway and their movement pattern is urgent since there is limited research in related to child pedestrians and there is an inadequate guideline for it in the urban and rural area. The aim of this research is to analyze children space capacity and movement pattern. Data is taken in the form of video recording and photos using camera and smartphone and is counted using drawing program AutoCAD 2016 for measurement. Research location is 14 elementary schools in the urban area of the city of Manado and 9 schools in the rural area of Minahasa, North Minahasa, and Sangihe Island. The sample is based on Krejcie Morgan formula where there is a need for a minimum of 383 children considering the number of the population of elementary students in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Data is analyzed using SPSS 24. Results are children pedestrian space capacity with consideration to the number of children in a walking group and straight and zig-zag movement pattern. There is a need to have a special child pedestrian standard for the urban and rural area. Future research could develop the variant of location and time in which children walk to their destination, such as shopping precinct and housing area.

  12. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRITICAL CO2 REFRIGERATION SYSTEM FOR SUPERMARKET APPLICATION Download Article

    IDewa M.C. Santosa, Sudirman and ING Suta Waisnawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (70-75)
    • No of Download = 150

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    Environmental issues becomes a priority on the refrigeration system development. The main issues are global warming and ozone depletion which are emitted from the conventional refrigeration system. One of the natural and clean refrigerants is Carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 refrigeration system however still has low performance when operating at high ambient temperature. This study aim is to investigate the performance of CO2 transcritical refrigeration system in high outdoor temperature. The research was carried out by theoretical study and numerical analysis of the refrigeration system using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) program. Data input and simulation validation were obtained from experimental and secondary data. The result showed that the coefficient of performance (COP) decreased gradually with the outdoor temperature variation increasing. With temperature input increases between 25oC – 45oC, the performance (indicated by overall COP) decreased by 3.0 %. These results will be significantly important for a preliminary reference to improve the CO2 refrigeration system design in hot climate temperature application.

  13. COMPARISON PRODUCTION BIOETHANOL FROM CELLULOSE USING BATCH DISTILLATION AND FLASH DISTILLATION PROCESS Download Article

    Ni Ketut Sari and Dira Ernawati
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (76-81)
    • No of Download = 186

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    The process of distillation in either a batch distillation or flash distillation each have positions and disadvantages, and the areas of batch distillation that have high columns can be synchronized with some the stage more than one phases, and flash distillation has tall columns that matched equally to one step. The advantages of flash distillation have a shorter distillation time versus batch distillation, distillation bioethanol yield on flash batch distillation more than it is. This research aims to get purer bioethanol, more amount of bioethanol as well as shorter time. Bamboo contains cellulose and high glucose, reduce the amount of lignin and pentose with pretreatment and lignification process, filtrate glucose produced in the fermentation using enzymes. From the process of fermentation obtained bioethanol with 15%, then conducted the process of distillation, with variable timing and temperature. Bioethanol achieved with the levels of approximately 95%, of the process of batch distillation bioethanol yield obtained is smaller, longer time and higher levels of the flash distillation process, obtained yield bioethanol larger, shorter time and the lower levels.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES TOWARD SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS IN BASIC PHYSICS PRACTICUM BY USING PEER MODEL Download Article

    Rudy Kustijono, Budi Jatmiko and Muslimin Ibrahim
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (82-87)
    • No of Download = 238

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    The purpose of the research is to compare the influence of scientific attitudes toward the science process skills in basic physics practicum of PEER model with the conventional model. PEER is an acronym for Planning, Experiment, Evaluate, and Reporting, which is the stage of the model's practicum. Scientific attitudes here are honesty, collaboration, discipline, responsibility, open-mindedness. Scientific process skills here are: classifying, making a question, identifying and controlling variables, measuring, and inferring. The type of research is experimental with the static-group comparison design. Research subjects are 120 students from Physics Department, Chemistry, and Biology of Universitas Negeri Surabaya. Data analysis uses t-test. The results showed that: 1) The score of scientific attitudes and science process skills of the PEER model differed significantly from the conventional model (tx and ty > t0, with t0 = 2.7764 and α = 0.05); 2) The average score of scientific attitude of PEER model (x1 ± σx1) is better than conventional model, the average value of science process skill with PEER model is better than conventional model. The results of this study conclude that the PEER model practicum can produce better scientific attitudes and science process skills than conventional models.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF LIFE SKILLS TRAINING AND PROMOTING FAMILY ENVIRONMENT TO PREVENT YOUTH SUBSTANCE ABUSE: A STUDY IN KHON KAEN, THAILAND Download Article

    Varinthip Srikongphlee, Varisara Luvila and Manop Kanato
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (88-94)
    • No of Download = 217

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    Substance abuse is the major health problem in Thailand, despite the local government organization’s prevention program. Training in life skills development in combination with promoting family environment has been found to effectively reduce the drug abuses in many countries. However, no study has investigated this method in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of life skills training in combination with promoting a family environment to prevent youth drug abuse. A quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to September 2015. Participants consisted of 969 youths from different sub-districts were randomly allocated to either intervention arm (received the training in life skills development and promoting family environment) or control arm (received the prevention program by local government organization). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires in the period of 3 months and 6 months. There were significant differences between the mean scores of family environment subscale; the p-value for cohesion was <0.001, and p-value for conflict was 0.05. The proportion of new drug users was significantly lower in the intervention group (mean difference 0.54, 95%CI: 0.009-0.1) but no significant difference in the proportion of new drug users between the two groups at 6-months follow-up. Absolute risk reduction (ARR) of the intervention group to reduce new drug abuse at the period of both 3 and 6 months was 0.54, the number needed to harm was 18.4. The life skills training in combination with family environment promotion was effective for at least 6 months to prevent drug abuse.

  16. SERVICE INDEX MODELING OF URBAN DRAINAGE NETWORK Download Article

    Hari Suprayogi, Mohammad Bisri,Lily Montarcih Limantara and Ussy Andawayanti
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-100)
    • No of Download = 244

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    This research develops a formula for determining the condition of infrastructure service of urban drainage network based on the technical and non-technical aspect. This formula works by elaborating the variable and indicator which gives the values to each aspect both the technical and non-technical one. The three variables that give the important aspect to the technical aspect namely system capacity, puddle problems and drainage patterns, each indicated by an indicator. Non-technical aspects influenced by five variables are institutional management, legal and regulatory aspects, socio-cultural and economic, public and private roles and flood losses. The research conducts in the Citepus drainage network that has 16 primary channels. Collecting data from the technical aspects is carried out by the direct site visit measurements as well as the secondary data collection. The non-technical aspects use the questionnaire as the qualitative data that converted to the quantitative one. Furthermore, an analysis using the GRG-Generalized Reduced Gradient method is used by allowing the nation-linear constraints and arbitrary bounds on the variables. The result of this research is the “Suprayogi” index model, with regard of the urban drainage index model that is developed using the technical and non-technical aspects involving the variables and indicators affecting the service level of the drainage network. The result shows, for the technical aspect: the capacity system has the largest influence with the determinant coefficient of 0.853, followed by the puddle problems (0.127), and the drainage patterns (0.07). For the non-technical aspects: socio-cultural and economic aspect has the greatest influence with the determinant coefficient of 0.47, followed by flood losses (0.604), legal and regulatory aspect (0.306), the institutional management (0.087), the public and private roles (0.0026).

  17. PERFORMANCE OF FACE RECOGNITION WITH PRE-PROCESSING TECHNIQUES ON ROBUST REGRESSION METHOD Download Article

    Budi Nugroho, Eva Yulia Puspaningrum and Anny Yuniarti
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (101-106)
    • No of Download = 227

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    The Robust Regression method has been used successfully in face recognition problems. Based on empirical experiments on some standard face image databases, the method shows very high accuracy. The method used the histogram equalization technique to normalize illumination such that the effect of illumination factors is reduced substantially on the image. In this research, some contrast adjustment techniques are used in the pre-processing stage to determine how far those techniques affect the face recognition performance. There are three contrast adjustment techniques used, i.e. Histogram Equalization (Histeq function), Contrast-limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization / CLAHE (Adapthisteq function) and Imadjust function. In addition, it is also used the no-pre-processing technique (not using pre-processing techniques). The experiments were performed on three standard face image databases, i.e. CMU-PIE Face Database, Extended Yale Face Database B, and AR Face Database. The experimental results show that the use of Adapthisteq function in the pre-processing stage of the Robust Regression method produces the highest average accuracy of 97.69%. This result is better than the accuracy of Histeq, Imadjust, or no-pre-processing technique, which are 94.53%, 90.59%, and 93.43% respectively.

  18. DIMENSIONLESS SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH AT GEMBONG WATERSHED, PASURUAN REGENCY-EAST JAVA PROVINCE OF INDONESIA Download Article

    Mohammad Bisri, Lily Montarcih Limantara and Laksono D. Nugroho
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (107-112)
    • No of Download = 288

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    This study aims to establish the model of Dimensionless Synthetic Unit Hydrograph at Gendong Watershed, Pasuruan Regency-East Java Province of Indonesia. The observed data of Automatic Water Level Recorder at Gembong Warungdowo was used in this research and the Automatic Rainfall Recorder at P3GI (Sugar Factory Central Research of Indonesia) from 2008 until 2011. The model was differentiated by using the Collins Method. The result showed that the suitable model at Gembong watershed is as follow: the rising limb curve is Qn = Qp + 0.615 (t-Tp) and the recession line curve is Qt = Qp x e0.30 (TP-t). This result was based on the regression statistical analysis with the highest correlation of R2=0.993 and the standard error minimum of SEY=1.143 for the rising limb curve, however, for the recession line curve is R=0.906 and SEY=0.415. The model is as follow: the rising limb is Qn = Qp + 0.615 (t-Tp) and the recession line is Qt = Qp x e 0.30 (TP-t) .

  19. WATER ECONOMIC VALUE OF FRESH WATER SYSTEM IN THE TANGGUNGGUNUNG VILLAGE, INDONESIA Download Article

    Lily Montarcih Limantara, Suhardjono, Rispiningtati, Jadfan Sidqi Fidari and Secillia Novitasari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (113-120)
    • No of Download = 258

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    One of the factors causing the increasing demand for fresh water in Indonesian society is the very rapid population growth. Therefore, it is needed to solve this problem by increasing the water source for fulfilling the fresh water need. One of the efforts is by carrying out the rehabilitation and develop the freshwater distribution network. The accurate water economic analysis is very necessary to solve the problem. This study intends to analyze the construction and operational cost, benefit, and the minimum water price. The result shows that the minimum water price in Tanggunggunung Village is Rp. 2,280.-/m3 with the total cost of Rp. 6,591,350,562.00 and the benefit is Rp. 8,469,104,820.00. The value of water price is included in the water price classification which is still able to be paid by the local society. Based on the analysis, it can carry out the development efforts which are useful for increasing or improving the function of the freshwater distribution network in the Tanggunggunung Village.

  20. PATH PLANNING FOR MOBILE ROBOTS IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT USING IMPROVED BACTERIAL FORAGING ALGORITHM Download Article

    Yisti Vita Via, Henni Endah Wahanani and Salamun Rohman Nudin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (121-126)
    • No of Download = 234

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    The topic of navigation is one of the focused problems in the correlation of autonomous mobile robots. It is necessary to have a methodology to accomplish a collision path of navigation from an initial position (state) to a target position (goal). This paper presents a new method for path planning to determine a feasible, optimal, and safe path. Based on Bacterial Foraging algorithm, we propose an improved algorithm for solving the one-line path planning of mobile robots by choosing the proper objective function for the target, obstacles, and robots collision avoidance. This algorithm finds a path towards the target and avoiding the obstacles using particles, which are randomly distributed, on a determined area around a robot. The criterion on which it selects the best article is the distance to the target. By the proposed approach, the next positions of each robot are designed.

  21. LOCAL BINARY PATTERN METHOD AND FEATURE SHAPE EXTRACTION FOR DETECTING BUTTERFLY IMAGE Download Article

    Dhian Satria Yudha Kartika, Darlis Herumurti and Anny Yuniarti
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (127-133)
    • No of Download = 209

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    Research in the field of information retrieval especially on image processing is proliferating. Various methods are developed to be able to detect images optimally and produce better accuracy. The process of image detection can use the dataset that exists around us. In this research, we use butterflies dataset, since the butterfly has unique colors, patterns, and diverse shapes. Therefore, we use local binary pattern method for texture feature extraction and region props for shape feature extraction. The results of each texture feature extraction and shape feature extraction will be a merging process. The results of the merging process get an accuracy of 66%. In addition, the system testing process with confusion matrix will produce 67.1% precision value, 66% recall and f-measure of 66.5%. The merging process of both methods shows the interplay of texture and shape extraction.

  22. IMAGE PREPROCESSING WITH SYMMETRICAL FACE IMAGES IN FACE RECOGNITION AND REGRESSION CLASSIFICATION Download Article

    Eva Y Puspaningrum, Ronggo Alit, Surjohadi and Andri Istifariyanto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (134-140)
    • No of Download = 161

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    Face recognition with variations in lighting is a significant thing than the physical characteristics of each individual in facial recognition problems. The difference in illumination from the right and left can affect the face image. A face image is an axis-symmetrical object. There are many studies on face recognition, but only a little attention is paid to this issue and few studies to explore and exploit the axis-symmetrical property of faces for face recognition are conducted. In this paper, we take the axis-symmetrical nature of faces then take the side of the face that is not exposed to dark light for pre-processing that will then be done by robust regression classification. The results of this experiment got an average accuracy of 92.8%. Using the proposed method on data with a 51 to 77- degree illumination angle produces better accuracy.

  23. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VIDEO ON DEMAND AND VIDEO STREAMING ON THE NETWORK MPLS TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Download Article

    Henni Endah Wahanani, Wahyu S. J. Saputra and Elisio M. F. Freitas
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (141-148)
    • No of Download = 189

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    Video on Demand (VoD) and video streaming is a type of service used on multimedia networks through the internet (www) to make things easier users access the broadcast that is life. This requires a reliable network for the video to be displayed get maximum results, where this research implemented using MPLS-TE (Multi-Protocol Label Switching-Traffic Engineering). The key feature of MPLS is its TE, which plays a vital role in minimizing the congestion by efficient load balancing and management of the network resources. Due to lower network delay, efficient forwarding mechanism, enhancing the speed of packet transfer, scalability and predictable performance of the services provided by MPLS technology makes it more suitable for implementing real-time applications such as VoIP and video streaming. This paper evaluated the performance measures such as transfer time, delay, throughput using OSPF as routing protocol and tunneling to determine the inside path the process of different types of traffic (video on demand, video streaming) in their movement in a network MPLS-TE. Test results from Quality of Service (QoS) analysis taken minimum delay value in the reference journal MPLS-VPN which reached 9.0 while the maximum value in MPLS-TE obtained from the analysis that is with the value 0.015.

  24. THE EFFECT OF SINTERING TEMPERATURE AND MIXING TREATMENT ON CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF Y-358 SUPERCONDUCTORS Download Article

    W.G. Suharta, I.K. Giri Nata, I.G. Antha Kasmawan and S. Poniman and G..N Sutapa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (149-154)
    • No of Download = 169

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    This study aims to determine the effect of adding sintering temperature to changes in crystal structure and magnetic properties of the Y-358 superconductor. The raw material consisting of Y2O3 (99.9%), BaCO3 (99.9%) and CuO (99.9%) were mixed in 3 days using a magnetic stirrer. Then heated at 100°C until crust. The calcination process was carried out at 600 for 3 hours and sintered at 850, 875, 900 and 925oC for 10 hours each. From the X-Ray diffraction (XRD) result, the peak intensity of Y-358 superconductor increases with the addition of sintering temperature. The lowest peak intensity is 58 cps at 2θ of 86.4925 and the highest peak is 2041 cps at 2θ of 32.78. The addition of sintering temperature at 850, 875, 900 and 925oC resulted in the addition of volume fraction, respectively 42.3%, 49.7%, 57.7% and 67.9%. The addition of sintering temperature also resulted in larger particle size, respectively 35.31, 47.72, 49.07 and 57.85 nm. The 3-day mixing treatment in the synthesis process resulted in a sample of nanometer size (nm) as seen in the TEM characterization results. The magnetic properties of the sample are known from the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) characterization results, showing the ferromagnetic properties with a magnetization saturation value of 0.08 emu/gr, the magnetization value of remanent of 0.02 emu/gr and the coercive force value of 684.12 Oe. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization results show the absorption of OH groups in wave numbers 2814.14 and 3608.81 for samples calcined at 600°C and their intensity decreases with the addition of sintering temperature.

  25. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF NANO-PARTICLES BSCNGCO SUPERCONDUCTORS AT ROOM -TEMPERATURE Download Article

    IAM Sudarmini, WG Suharta, IKN Suarbawa, K. Sukarasa and IBM Suryatika
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (155-160)
    • No of Download = 163

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    Synthesis of nano-particles Bi2Sr2(Ca1,5Nd0,25Gd0,25)Cu3Oz (BSCNGCO) superconductors has been successfully done by the wet mixing method. The aim of the study was to produce nanoparticles of BSCNGCO superconductors and study magnetic properties at room temperature. In this research, the raw material used in the formation of BSCNGCO superconductors is Bi2O3 (99.9%), SrCO3 (99.9%), CaCO3 (99.9%), CuO (99.9%), Nd2O3 (99.9%) and Gd2O3 (99.9%). The synthesis process was conducted by added with HNO3 and mixing by a magnetic stirrer to obtain a homogeneous solution, then continued with the calcination process at 450oC for 2 hours and 600oC for 1 hour. The sintering process is done at 830oC with a variation of time, that is 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The result of XRD characterization is dominated by BSCNGCO with 2223 phases and BSCNGCO with 2212 phases, but there are still impurities in each sample such as Bi2CuO4 and Bi2O2.7. The addition of sintering time in 10, 20 and 30 minutes resulted in the addition of fractional volume values of BSCNGCO with 2223 phases, respectively 42.39%, 47.85%, and 49.42%. In contrast, the fraction of the phase volume of impurities (Bi2CuO4, BSCNGCO with 2212 phases, Bi2O2,7) decreases with the addition of sintering time. From the results of TEM morphology and calculations using the Scherrer equation, we can determine the particle size of sample superconductors. The addition of sintering time in 10, 20 and 30 minutes resulted in increased particle size, respectively 25.61 nm, 26.10 nm and 30.08 based on calculations using the Sherrer equation. While the calculations using the ImageJ program of the TEM results of 0.2 nm and 0.5 nm, for the sintering time of 10 and 20 minutes respectively. The results of the VSM characterization of the sample exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. The addition of sintering time causes the saturation magnetization (Ms), a remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercive force (Hc) values to decrease. Samples of superconductors with sintering time of 10 and 20 minutes showed Ms values of 0.155 emu/g and 0.157 emu/g, Mr values of 0.012 emu/g and 0.011 emu/g, Hc values of 528.623 Oe and 473.327 Oe, respectively.

  26. NEARLY-OPTIMUM SELECTION OF STRENGTH t ORTHOGONAL ARRAYS: A STRENGTH AND EFFICIENCY APPRAISAL Download Article

    Julio Romero and Scott Murray
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (161-166)
    • No of Download = 231

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    The process of enumeration and construction of orthogonal arrays has been extensively studied and several methods to develop and implement them have been proposed. There is, however, a gap in the literature when deciding the most appropriate orthogonal array to be tailored to a specific situation. Romero and Murray [1] presented a combinatorial-based technique to list all the possible isomorphic arrays for a given design type and undertook the enumeration of almost all of them (up to 100 runs). The size of the orbits under consideration (the number of isomorphic arrays or possible arrangements for the same design type) was found very large. Certainly, the decision to select the most suitable array for a given situation becomes a non-trivial and computationally intensive task. Some attempts to overcome this problem have been proposed [2] [3], yet a context-based approach has not fully been taken into consideration. In this paper, an engineering-based approach is presented to select orthogonal arrays according to their isomorphism and experimental implementation. The arrays were simulated and tested using a protective relay and its associated circuits. Although still in the process of testing, preliminary results show important performance advantages over
    traditional techniques such as crossed arrays, combined arrays and response surface methods.

  27. DECISION-MAKING FOR EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF SUITABLE INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING SYSTEM Download Article

    Yidnekachew Tesmamma Daget and Hong Zhang
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (167-173)
    • No of Download = 250

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    The evaluation of housing system in order to make the effective decision for application in housing construction has been a challenge for many developing countries. This study examines the novel approach to evaluate and select the industrialized housing system (IHS) that is appropriate for adoption in the rapid housing development project in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The method applied in this study comprises critical literature review, experts’ interview and questionnaire survey within the Ethiopian construction industry. Data obtained was analyzed using an analytical hierarchy process research technique and an Expert Choice Comparison software platform. The findings revealed that affordability, quality, and innovation are the most important attributes to be considered for decision-making. In addition, semi-industrialized precast concrete systems are preferable for application cost-effective large-scale housing development. All stakeholders involved in housing development can apply the decision-factors and method used in this study in order to make effective decisions.

  28. THE EFFECT OF FUEL PRICE INCREASE ON TRANSPORT COST OF CONTAINER TRANSPORT VEHICLES Download Article

    Adel Gohari, Abdul Nasir Matori, Khamaruzaman W. Yusof, Iraj Toloue and Abdulkadir T. Sholagberu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (174-181)
    • No of Download = 176

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    This study presents the impact of fuel price increase on the transport cost of containers by using container vehicles. ArcGIS was used to build the transport network while MATLAB software was used to develop Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm and coding the transport cost equation. In this study, two case studies were analyzed with Johor Port as the origin and, the Port Klang and top-north-point were considered as destinations for cases 1 and 2. The optimum routes for each mode of transport were identified. The results of least-cost routes against fuel price increase were compared for shipment of containers from origin to destination in the intermodal network of Peninsular Malaysia. In the analysis, fuel price was increased from its current price sequentially to 100%. Based on the assumptions of this study, the results showed that transport cost of a container by train was significantly lower than truck even when the fuel price of the train was doubled. Comparing train-based and ship-based optimal routes revealed that transport cost by train, when its fuel price doubled, was slightly higher than ship in case 1. While in case 2, transport cost by train when its fuel price doubled was considerably cheaper than the ship-based route in its current fuel price. It can be concluded that fuel price increase has the highest impact on transport cost of containers by ship, followed by train and truck. The presented methodology and procedure are applicable for any origin-destination pair in the transport network.

  29. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSERVATIVE VILLAGE MODEL IN THE UPSTREAM BRANTAS RIVER Download Article

    Kustamar, Togi H. Nainggolan, Agung Witjaksono, Addy Utomo and Lily Montarcih Limantara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (182-188)
    • No of Download = 183

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    Water spring (WS) conservation in the upstream area of Brantas River is intended to protect the potency of the main water spring in East Java Province that is being threatened. The threat occurred is caused by a lot of dry water springs, the lowering of river discharge in the dry season, the dam shallowness leading to the flood and the lack of water. Although the conservative activity has involved many agencies, a non-profit organization, local people and the higher education, the achievement rate is still low. The partial activities in the form of the pilot project, in the end, give priority to togetherness that is the establishment of village conservation. The variety of conservative village has been developed by many agencies in accord with the goal and its concept. For the recent time, the conservative village which has been established does not have any capability to take the roll as the pilot that led to the spirit of the other village society conservation. The physical condition variety of the river stream area and social society in upstream Brantas River influence the condition of the conservative village. Therefore, the research is done the research to find the formulation of conservative village condition in upstream Brantas which is conditioned to establish the conservative culture as the implementation of daily activity part. The evaluation result of middle-term village development planning by comparing the conservative need from the analysis shows that conservation has not become the important issue. Therefore it is suggested a regulation to compose village RPJM in order to pay attention to the rules of water spring resources conservation. Thus, composed village RPJM, if it is implemented, will improve the flow coefficient value without decreasing the importance of the other sector development.

  30. OPTIMIZING THE PROPERTIES OF VULCANIZED COMPOUNDS FOR FOODSTUFF CONVEYOR BELTS IN INDUSTRIAL MICROWAVE PER-HEATING Download Article

    Suphatchakorn Limhengha and Wipoo Sriseubsai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (189-196)
    • No of Download = 229

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    This research finds a natural rubber-based material with good dielectric properties and low cost for a foodstuff conveyor belt (FCB) that can be heated with microwaves. For this purpose, epoxidized natural rubber-50 (ENR50) and standard Thai rubber 5L (STR5L) were mixed with a filler mixture of silica and magnesium carbonate. The FCB compound with filler (FCBcF) yielding the best vulcanization time, and the best mechanical, dielectric and dynamic properties, was selected for further study. The optimal FCBcF, ENR50:SiO2:MgCO3 (100:40:40) with microwave pre-heating at 2.45 GHz and 340 W for one minute before vulcanization, was well cross-linked and strongly converted the microwaves to heat. FCBcF also showed satisfactory mechanical properties with reduced cost of raw materials and reduced the curing time by 50% per round. The results demonstrate that pre-heating of FCBcF prior to vulcanization reduces the time and cost of fabricating FCBs, providing long-term economic and environmental benefits.

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