Articles

  1. THE POTENTIAL OF THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR FOR ENGINE EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY APPLICATIONS Download Article

    Nyoman Sugiartha and I Putu Sastra Negara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-8)
    • No of Download = 302

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    In this study, a thermoelectric generation (TEG) unit was designed and constructed to evaluate the technical potential of exhaust heat recovery system for automobile applications. The TEG system was made up of a commercial thermoelectric module of TEC1 12706 model, an aluminum duct, an aluminum fin heat sink, an electric heater, a cooling fan, AC and DC power supply, an external resistive load and data collection devices. The heater was used as an exhaust heat source simulator to supply heat energy to the hot side of the TEG module. The cooling fan was used for simulating airflow and maintaining uniform heat rejection from the heat sink to the ambient. The experimental investigation had been conducted to characterize the TEG’s performance. The tests were undertaken based on the measurements of temperature at both hot and cold sides of the TEG module, open circuit voltage, and output voltage and current under various external resistive loads. The test results showed that the highest temperature difference was 40.1 oC. This revealed a peak output power of 178.2 mW, a load voltage of 1156.3 mV, a load current of 220 mA and a conversion efficiency of 0.204%. The thermoelectric generation from waste heat energy of a simulated automobile exhaust is technically feasible, though the output power and the conversion efficiency of the TEG unit seem low. In general, it is found that the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric module has the most significant impact on the TEG’s performance.

  2. AN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WASTE TREATMENT IN THE TRADITIONAL MARKETS Download Article

    Tri Padmi, Maryam Dewiandratika and Enri Damanhuri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (9-16)
    • No of Download = 284

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    Two different fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) collection and treatment systems have been evaluated and compared with the existing system in the largest traditional market located in Bandung city, Indonesia. In this study, greenhouse gas quantification was performed to compare the environmental impact of current landfill practices against two different options: (i) on-site composting, and (ii) on-site anaerobic digestion. In addition to this, the economic performance was also evaluated by estimating the cost-output ratio from cost-effectiveness analysis and the payback period. The evaluation results were then presented in the matrix of strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to provide an insight for the decision maker in determining the most appropriate solution for fruit and vegetable waste treatment system in the traditional markets. The results indicated that the alteration of FVW management system from the landfill to an on-site composting would decrease the cost-output ratio by 20%. Meanwhile, the implementation of an on-site anaerobic digestion showed a negative value of cost-output ratio indicating a profitable system. Furthermore, the estimation on net energy balance revealed that one ton of waste treated in a landfill, composting and anaerobic digestion would result in 3.52, 0.01 and -0.12 ton CO2-eq, with the negative sign indicating the energy production. In addition, the payback period for anaerobic digestion and composting are remarkably short; around 8 and 13 months, respectively. These two alternatives, however, would be less advantageous if the government cannot ensure the availability of target sectors that may benefit from the utilization of compost and digestate.

  3. ADAPTIVE NON-LINEAR NETWORK FILTER ESTIMATION ERROR FOR STEREO ECHO CANCELLATION IN HOME THEATRE 9.1 SURROUND SOUND SYSTEM Download Article

    Sunisa Kunarak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (17-22)
    • No of Download = 256

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    In this paper, an adaptive non-linear network filter (ANLNF) approach based on Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNNs) is proposed for the stereo echo cancellation that is a necessary process for reducing undesired signal owing that the audiences can receive the apparent sound signal. The Gaussian activation function is suitable in used to model the characteristic of room transfer function. The samples of the direct sound and the echo sound signal in home theatre are applied as the input for the adaptive non-linear network filter. Finally, the simulation results illustrate the predicted error between the actual sound and direct sound, the Echo Return Loss Enhancement (ERLE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) in order to guarantee the clarity sound signal. We observe that the proposed algorithm outperforms compared with the other methods as Adaptive Filter with Gain and Time-Shift, Wiener Adaptive Filter, Feedforward Network and Average Recursive Least Square, respectively.

  4. THE KEY-COMPONENTS OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING DESIGN FOR AUSTRALIAN SMALL SIZE HOUSING Download Article

    Javad Asad Poor, David Thorpe and Yong Goh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (23-29)
    • No of Download = 115

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    The building industry has a substantial potential for short-run and cost-effective greenhouse gases emission mitigation with long-term positive sustainability impacts. There are, however, a variety of human-based barriers, detracting from the leverage of the mitigation plans in this industry. The impacts of human-based factors are especially critical in the small size residential buildings, whereby a wide range of stakeholders plays serious roles in the housing development. In Australia, one critical human-based factor in the residential sector is the occupants’ preferences, increasing substantially diversity and complexity of the dwelling units’ physical characteristics. This paper intends to explain the role of feasibility assessment and design process in improving the energy performance of the Australian residential sector. Accordingly, an overview of the Australian housing characteristics assists in addressing the key characteristics of the Australian housing preferences. The analyses show that typological monotony, high range of owner-occupied housing, alongside occupants’ affordability are a number of characteristics of the Australian housing, which facilitate the implementation of housing efficiency plans in the early stages of housing provision. Some other characteristics, e.g. floor area, number of bedrooms, and number of people per dwelling units are some inefficient housing preferences, stressing the significant role of designers in encouraging the residents toward efficient choice behaviors. Accordingly, the design process has the potential to impact the energy demands of Australian housing through Housing-Resident Fit, by the implementing the key components of sustainable housing design, impacting the occupants’ preferences, and simplifying their domestic activities.

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS IN GROCERY STORE MARKET IN CANADA Download Article

    Jarotwan Koiwanit
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (30-36)
    • No of Download = 273

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    There is growing pressure to limit Global Warming Potential (GWP) as it is the most significant way to reduce serious threats to people. The increase of average temperature in the atmosphere causes adverse effects on the environment, and this is changing the way business operates. Together with undergoing changes to be more environmentally friendly, the majority of business sectors has been launching many projects to reduce environmental impacts. Similar to grocery sector in Canada, many companies have been reported to investigate the environmental performance. Loblaw Companies Limited, the largest food distributors in Canada, has put more concerns on environmental impacts and worked diligently to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through actions such as improving energy efficiency reducing refrigerant leaks, and incorporating renewable energy sources. This study analyzed Loblaw’s energy efficiency and environmental performance and provided suggestions in the applications of skylight improvement, geothermal, refrigeration systems, kinetic energy to electricity, and e-grocery shopping. The results showed that the environmental concerns were substantially decreased. However, types of lights and refrigerators, distance driven, vehicle types, fuel used in e-grocery shopping results in the different amount of emissions; consequently, the GHG emissions varied depending on these factors. By integrating more environmentally technology, Loblaw could further reduce their emissions and waste and become a more sustainable company.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF THE CORPORATION: EFFICIENCY OF THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH Download Article

    Andrey Vladimirovich Polosin and Vladimir Alexandrovich Grachev
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (37-40)
    • No of Download = 239

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    Ensuring environmental safety is a serious problem that can be solved through environmental policy. The article considers the ecological efficiency of the systemic approach to the implementation of environmental policy in the context of the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation. It is shown that the main feature of the Corporation's environmental policy is a systematic approach, which consists in the implementation of the following principles: planning, implementation, reporting, control, and continuous improvement of environmental performance based on these principles. A decrease in the collective dose of personnel radiation exposure from 206.2 to 113.7 mSv during 15 years and a reduction of all types of harmful impact on the environment is shown based on experimental data. Implementation of the Federal Target Program for 2008-2015 allowed increasing the area of the rehabilitated territories almost twice, disposal of the spent fuel assemblies – by 1.2 times, number of the liquidated dangerous objects – by 1.3 times. The ecological efficiency of the implementation of the systemic approach in the environmental policy of the Corporation is shown based on specific factors indicating reduction of hazardous substances’ emissions, discharges into water bodies, and waste generation, as well as factors indicating the efficiency of liquidation of the nuclear industry hazardous facilities and rehabilitation of radiation-contaminated areas. The systemic approach and high environmental efficiency performance allow recommending the Rosatom's best practices for the environmental policy implementation in other energy and industrial sectors.

  7. FACTORS RELATED TO SELF-CARE ABILITY AMONG ELDERLY WOMEN IN SEMI-URBAN COMMUNITIES, KHON KAEN, THAILAND Download Article

    Kanchana Nimsuntorn1, Piyathida Kuhirunyaratn and Kanaporn Tansriprapasiri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (41-46)
    • No of Download = 159

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    This research study aims to describe factors related to self-care ability among elderly women in semi-urban communities around Khon Kaen, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted on an elderly woman over 60 years old in the Banped Municipality of Khon Kaen, Thailand. From 317 participants 268 valid questionnaires were received. Participants were selected using a simple random sampling method. Study measurements used interview questionnaire constructs included self-care ability, demographics, chronic disease, health status and mental health. Descriptive statistics, i.e. frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation (S.D.), median and interquartile range (IQR) were conducted to describe initial results. Furthermore, inferential statistics for bivariate analysis, chi-square, odds ratio and multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression, were performed. The self-care ability level of all individual participants was assessed by the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE). The individual’s mental health level was assessed by the Thai Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (TGDS-15). After the results of the SASE were analyzed, 166 elders were found to have a high level of self-care ability while 102 elders had a low level of self-care ability. Self-care ability was found to be highly associated with demographics, chronic disease, health status, and mental health. Factors that were significantly related to a high level of self-care ability included age, chronic disease, perceived health status, and mental health: depression (p-values < 0.05).

  8. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO REGULATION Download Article

    Lindrianasari, Mahatma Kufepaksi, Yuztitya Asmaranti and Agrianti Komalasari
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (47-52)
    • No of Download = 226

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    This study aims to analyze and describe the social and environmental responsibility of companies listed on the stock exchange in three developing countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand, before and after 2007. In 2007 chosen as the cut-off year of observation as we find in each country was issued a significant environmental policy. By doing a differential test on a sample of 24.626 independent firms/years, the study found that four variables used in this study overall showed a significant difference. Environmental costs, the disclosure of environmental, social disclosure, and ESG that observed in three developing countries has increased significantly since 2007. However, we did not find a significant increase in environmental costs in Indonesia. The findings of this study indicate that the theory of regulation, particularly for public interest theory, can explain clearly the reasons why the four variables of research has increased after the environmental regulations issued.

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY AT EACH HABITAT OF PSEUDOLABRUS SIEBOLDI, USUAL FISH SPECIES IN A WESTERN JAPAN COASTAL AREA Download Article

    Michiko Masuda, Wataru Kawase and Fumitake Nishimura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-58)
    • No of Download = 205

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    Pseudolabrus sieboldi is a very common labrid fish in Japan coastal region, so the species wasn't being watched so much up to now. Therefore, the habitats of P. sieboldi have been developed easily. But it's pointed out that genetic isolation easily occurred due to being polygyny in their mating system. In order to investigate the genetic diversity of usual species, we sampled 6 populations of the species from western Japan coastal area, and studied them for allelic variation at 24 enzyme loci. In comparison with other sea fishes, the total genetic diversity is standard. Though sex ratio was inclined to females and inbreeding were easy to be performed, the gene diversity was not decreasing. In fact, there was inbreeding mating within the population. Moreover, standard genetic distance within populations along the Japan Sea is high and standard genetic distance within Pacific Ocean area is low. The fry of the species dispersed to the Pacific or the Japan Sea. When they grew adults, they returned to rocky shores for mating. The populations along the Pacific Ocean did not return exactly at their birth area. On the other hand, the populations along the Japan Sea returned more exactly at their birth area.

  10. EBOLA VIRAL PROTEIN 24 (VP24) INHIBITOR DISCOVERY BY IN SILICO FRAGMENT-BASED DESIGN Download Article

    Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan, Syafrida Siregar and Erwin Prasetya Toepak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (59-64)
    • No of Download = 234

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    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a fatal disease caused by Ebolavirus that can potentially lead to death. The number of fatalities reached 11.000 of the 28.000 reported cases. A serious concern should be taken because neither drug nor treatment to cure this disease has been found until now. Recent studies show that viral protein 24 (VP24) is one of the non-structural protein that plays a key role in EBOV proliferation and viral life cycle. This study tried to find the potential inhibitor for EBOV VP24 through in silico experiment. About 242.520 compounds from ZINC15 In Vitro Database were obtained and screened according to the Rules of Three and pharmacological properties to get a proper lead-like fragment compound. These compounds were docked into the active site of VP24 using MOE 2014.09 software. The potential fragment compounds were linked to generate potential inhibitor ligands. These ligands were screened earlier based on Lipinski’s Rule of Five and toxicity prediction, then they were docked once again to obtain the favorable ligand. Furthermore, the dynamics simulation of best ligand, namely L833, L217, and L595, were performed to predict the ligand-enzyme complex stability. This research concludes that L595 is the best ligand. Moreover, the pharmacological and toxicity prediction also confirm that L595 can be developed as the potential inhibitor for EBOV VP24.

  11. FRAGMENT-BASED LEAD COMPOUND DESIGN TO INHIBIT EBOLA VP35 THROUGH COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES Download Article

    Atika Marnolia, Erwin Prasetya Toepak and Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (65-71)
    • No of Download = 203

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    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a virus that is classified under Filoviridae family as a pathogenic organism. On March 2016, World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 28.646 cases caused by EBOV. Thus, it is important to find the antiviral drug for this disease because it can create the epidemic around the world. EBOV VP35 is a potential drug target because it has the component of the viral RNA polymerase complex that will hamper the host interferon (IFN) production. In this research, about 6.662 fragments were obtained from ZINC15 Biogenic Database after the Rules of Three, and pharmacological properties parameters were applied. After that, these fragments were docked into the active side of EBOV VP35 using MOE 2014.09 software. The potential fragments from previous docking simulations were linked each other, resulting 91 ligands in the process. Furthermore, the docking simulation was conducted again and discovered the best three ligands that have lower Gibbs free binding energy than the standards. Moreover, the pharmacological prediction tests were also done to find the ligand with excellent molecular properties. The best three ligands from these tests were continued into molecular dynamics simulation. In the end, we conclude that the LEB 31 ligand can be the new drug candidate as EBOV VP35 inhibitor based on molecular docking, pharmacological prediction test, and molecular dynamic.

  12. CORRELATIONS AMONG MOTORCYCLE-RELATED DEATHS, HELMET LAW ENFORCEMENT AND HELMET USAGE FOR ASEAN COUNTRIES Download Article

    Jetsada Kumphong, Thaned Satiennam and Wichuda Satiennam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (72-77)
    • No of Download = 199

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    The ASEAN Community is recorded to have a high rate of motorcyclist injury and death. This study aims to determine the statistical correlations among the deaths related to motorcycle accidents, helmet law enforcement and helmet use among ASEAN countries. Linear regression analysis was applied to develop models exploring the correlations at the 95% confidence level. The results indicate that those countries with higher efficiency of helmet law enforcement and higher helmet usage have achieved lower motorcycle-related death. The findings are useful for responsible organizations to determine road safety policies to reduce the deaths of motorcyclists in ASEAN countries.

  13. SEARCHING OF FLAVONOID COMPOUNDS AS A NEW ANTIVIRAL FOR SUDAN EBOLAVIRUS GLYCOPROTEIN USING IN SILICO METHODS Download Article

    Rendy Pramuda Putra, Ahmad Husein Alkaff, Mochammad Arfin Fardiansyah Nasution, Agustinus Corona Borealis Kantale, and Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (78-84)
    • No of Download = 200

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    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease from Ebolavirus genus and lethal to primates, including humans. The case fatality rate is 30%-90%. Until now, no vaccines nor drugs that could effectively combat Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) is the second deadliest species after Zaire ebolavirus, with a fatality rate of 50-70%. In Ebola life cycle, glycoprotein (GP) is crucial for mediating Ebolavirus entry into the host cell. Thus, molecules that could inhibit GP activity has a potential to become an ideal therapeutic compound of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Flavonoid compounds are potential because of its antiviral properties. In this research, the in silico method was utilized to investigate the potency of flavonoid compounds as an inhibitor of SEBOV GP through molecular docking and computational ADMET test. Moreover, the oral bioavailability and toxicity prediction of the flavonoid compounds were performed as well to get the best flavonoid compounds. In this research, about 1358 flavonoid compounds and 3D structure of SEBOV GP were retrieved from ChEBI database and RCSB PDB, respectively. Moreover, MOE 2014.09 software was used as the primary software. Furthermore, the Osiris DataWarrior and SwissADME were used as the software for conducting computational ADMET test. In the end, cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside, myricitrin V, and 7-O-(6-feruoylglucosy) were selected as the potential inhibitor of SEBOV GP because they have the best binding affinity and low toxicity risk.

  14. A NEW ESTIMATION PROCEDURE USING A REVERSIBLE JUMP MCMC ALGORITHM FOR AR MODELS OF EXPONENTIAL WHITE NOISE Download Article

    Suparman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (85-91)
    • No of Download = 234

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    The autoregressive model generally has a Gaussian error. If an autoregressive model that has a Gaussian error is used to model data, the assumption of normality is often not obeyed by the data. In addition, the parameters of the autoregressive model are generally unknown. The parameters of the autoregressive model include order model, model coefficient, error mean and error variance. This paper aims to determine the parameter estimation procedure of an autoregressive model that has an exponential error. In this paper, the autoregressive model parameter estimation is worked out in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Since the autoregressive order is also part of the model parameter, the Bayes estimator has a complex form so that the Bayes estimator cannot be explicitly calculated. To solve the problem, the reversible jump MCMC is implemented. The results show that model order, model coefficient, error mean and error variance can be calculated simultaneously. In addition, the resulting autoregressive model is always a stationary autoregressive model.

  15. ACHIEVING WATER SENSITIVE CITY CONCEPT THROUGH MUSRENBANG MECHANISM IN SURABAYA CITY, INDONESIA Download Article

    Eddy Setiadi Soedjono, Nurina Fitriani, Rifda Rahman and I Made Wahyu Wijaya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (92-97)
    • No of Download = 253

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    Water sensitive city is a very important issue for the development of future cities. Water sensitiveness is a kind of way of life for all communities in the cities. Cities with a low level of environmental awareness would be difficult to implement the issue of water sensitive city. The aim of this study is to access how water sensitive city concept could be implemented in Surabaya. Observations and surveys using focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview (IDI) were conducted to get real information on each musrenbang from kelurahan level up to kecamatan and city level. The concept of water sensitive city was likely to be possible to be implemented in Surabaya. It was, however, not easy to be implemented as human basic needs like poverty eradication, education, and sanitation was not discussed during musrenbang as these needs were indicators to further discuss the issue of water sensitive city. Water sensitive should not be thought and discussed as a concept, but it had to be practiced as the daily livelihood of the communities to create of robust cities for water-related issues.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF POLY(D,L-LACTIC ACID) WITH POLYBENZOXAZINE VIA SOLUTION BLENDING Download Article

    Kansiri Pakkethati and Yodthong Baimark
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (98-103)
    • No of Download = 215

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    Polybenzoxazine was synthesized by using bisphenol A, formaldehyde and diamine as precursor via condensation reaction. Triethylenetetramine was used as diamine precursor. Polybenzoxazine was characterized by FTIR technique in order to confirm the obtained polybenzoxazine. The ratio of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/polybenzoxazine (Mw = 10,000 and 20,000 g/mol) was 0:100, 1:99, 3:97 and 5:95, respectively. The poly(D,L-lactic acid)/polybenzoxazine films were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed homogenous and smooth films. Thermal stability of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/polybenzoxazine films was better than pure polybenzoxazine film. Moreover, 3:97 ratio of polybenzoxazine mixed with poly(D,L-lactic acid) (Mw = 20,000 g/mol) film showed good tensile strength, because the stress at break was 24.06 ± 7.99 when determined by Universal Tenting Machine. It was concluded that poly(D,L-lactic acid) improved the property of the polybenzoxazine film.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD FACTOR CALIBRATION FOR A FIXED PLATFORM IN THE JAVA SEA Download Article

    Paramashanti and Jessica R. Tawekal
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (104-111)
    • No of Download = 387

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    The environmental load factor in the ISO 19902 standards is derived based on conditions in the Gulf of Mexico, which are more extreme than conditions in Indonesia. This study is a preliminary investigation of the environmental load factors appropriate for the Java Sea, as this is a region in Indonesia where many platform structures are already in operation. Evaluation of an environmental load factor for Indonesia is carried out by performing reliability analyses using Monte Carlo simulations, in which the failure performance is determined by the first yield stress condition in the critical member of two fixed platform structures. From the results, an appropriate environmental load factor of 1.16 is proposed for the Java Sea, which is smaller than the value given in the ISO 20002 Standard for the Gulf of Mexico. More comprehensive environmental load factor research for other Indonesian regions should be done to complement this result.​

  18. EFFECT OF ARM SWING EXERCISES ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE AND BALANCE OF OLDER WOMEN Download Article

    Worawut Chompoopan and Piyathida Kuhirunyaratn
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (112-117)
    • No of Download = 248

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    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of arm swing exercises (ASE) on cardiovascular response and dynamic body balance of older women. 4 villages were randomly selected. The total population was 128 participants divided into 64 older women from two villages in the experimental group, another 64 older women from another two villages in the control group. The experimental group participated in the evening ASE program, five days a week, lasted for six months. The ASE program began with warming up for 5 minutes, swinging arms for 30 minutes, and gradually cooling down for another 5 minutes. Data collection consisted of pre and post-data collection before and after six months of the ASE program exercise. The collected data were validated by the experienced researcher. An independent t-test was used to compare the mean of both groups before participating in the ASE program. An intention-to-treat analysis was used for last observation carried forward missing data. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the mean of both groups and Paired t-test within the group. After 6 months of exercising, the cardiovascular response and body balancing of both groups were measured. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of participants in the experimental group were declined at 5.64 and 6.72 mmHg respectively while there was only slightly changed in the control group of which statistically was not significant. In addition, the resting heart rates of the participants in the experimental group declined to 6.76 beats /minute and their body balancing has improved. Therefore, the ASE program can be effective to improve BP, HR, and body balancing of older women.

  19. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF THAI MASSAGE ON GAIT PARAMETERS IN NORMAL ADULTS: A PILOT STUDY Download Article

    Nutthanun Tatchananusorn, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Uraiwan Chatchawan and Donlaya Promkeaw
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (118-123)
    • No of Download = 161

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    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of Thai massage on gait parameters including stride length, step length, step width, and gait speed, hamstring flexibility, trunk flexibility, and hip, knee and ankle range of motion while walking in normal adults aged 19-25 years. A randomized crossover trial was used. Thirty healthy subjects (17 females and 13 males) with the tightness of hamstring muscles as indicated by a straight-leg-raising (SLR) ranged between 40 to 70 degrees participated. Each of them received a session of 1-hour Thai massage and a controlled condition of 1-hour resting on a bed with a 2-day washout period. Changes in all parameters between Thai massage session and control session results were analyzed by independent t-test. Changes between pretest and posttest for both sessions were performed by dependent t-test. Significantly differences were found between-group comparison in hamstring flexibility (4.88º; 95%CI, 1.52 to 8.23), trunk flexibility (2.35 cm.; 95%CI, 1.25 to3.45), step length (1.94 cm.; 95%CI, 0.40 to 3.47), and stride length (4.77 cm.; 95%CI 2.12 to 7.41) (p<0.05). However, no differences were found in changes of gait speed, the range of motion of hip, knee, and ankle. We concluded that one session of Thai massage could provide immediate effects to improve some gait parameters, body flexibility, and hamstring flexibility.

  20. COMPARISON OF LUNG DAMAGES DUE TO PETROL AND DIESEL CAR SMOKE EXPOSURES: HISTOLOGICAL STUDY Download Article

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y.P, Juswono, Unggul P., and Noor, Johan A. E.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (124-129)
    • No of Download = 271

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    Motor vehicles have significantly recognized to have a role in air pollution. The emissions regarding particles and gasses have identified to affect human health depending on the concentration, constituents, kind of vehicles, and fuels. This study investigated the impacts of the petrol and diesel car smoke on mice lung. The aims were to observe the mice lung injury caused by the smoke exposures emitted by petrol and diesel car. The lung injury was identified by using the histological images. The mice were exposed to the smoke with a particular concentration conducted by introducing the smoke into the chamber with the dimension of 30x20x20 cm3 as long as 40 seconds. The mice exposures were carried out daily for eight days. The lung injury was observed using a Binocular BX-51 Computer Microscope with the 400x magnification to the histological images. We identified the healthy cells and damage cells to determine the lung damage showed by the destructive index. The results showed that the mice exposed to diesel cars have higher index rather than those with the petrol car exposures.

  21. INVESTIGATION ON CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN TRADITIONAL SALT PLOTS: PROMOTING UTILIZATION WASTE BY-PRODUCT Download Article

    Mirna Apriani, Ali Masduqi and Wahyono Hadi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (130-136)
    • No of Download = 256

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    Calcium and magnesium are two major anions found in seawater naturally after chlorine and sodium. Calcium and magnesium widely used for industrial and human health. Seawater salt productions produce salt and wastewater as concentrated sea water. Sodium and chloride produced as salt from seawater in traditional salt production while calcium and magnesium need to be considered for promoting recovery mineral. As alkaline earth metal, calcium and magnesium potentially interfere with each other in the chemical process. The investigation was conducted at the peak of the dry seasons in Indonesia by collecting a water sample from each plot in traditional salt production. Each water sample measured using complexometric titration and hydrometer to count its density. The objective of this study is to prove calcium and magnesium behavior in traditional salt productions in Indonesia with a view to achieving integrated production of salts and mineral from sea water. This information can support marine environment sustainability through recovery from traditional salt production wastewater. During evaporation, calcium concentration increases but starting from BE 13-16 will get down. Magnesium concentration increases steadily during the salt-making process. Recovery magnesium from bittern has advantages since calcium ion as impurities have deposition at 53.5% seawater evaporation.

  22. JOINT BENCHMARKING AND ECO-EFFICIENCY FOR THE SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE PRODUCTION IN THAILAND Download Article

    Weerawat Ounsaneha, Punthila Janthaphat, Thunwadee Tachapattaworakul Suksaroj and Cheerawit Rattanapan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (137-142)
    • No of Download = 290

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    This research aimed to develop the sustainable performance of swine production through joint benchmarking and eco-efficiency. The economic and environmental performance of 15 swine farms in Thailand between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated by Gate to Gate sector boundary. The results showed that the highest and lowest values of eco-efficiency in the swine farming sector were feed and water consumption, respectively. Benchmarking of eco-efficiencies in all indicators demonstrated that best practice for swine farms was obtained with average feed consumption of 1 kg-head-day, average water consumption of 1.17 L/headday, use of renewable energy from biogas of 0.014 kWh/head-day, use of swine fever vaccination and anthelmintics, greenhouse gas emissions of 0.00875 ton CO2-eq/head-day and total amount of waste produced of 6.25 kg/head-day. Lastly, the sustainable development of a recommended approach for swine production in Thailand, which includes breeding selection, husbandry management, farm management and attendance, and the environmental management of farms was developed using material flow analysis concepts, in-depth interview and brainstorming with best practice swine farmers.

  23. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILE MAP APPLICATION FOR PARK AND RIDE USERS Download Article

    Garavig Tanaksaranond
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (143-149)
    • No of Download = 185

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    User-centered design (UCD) has long been employed to enhance various map-based applications and GIS tools to ensure effective user interfaces. However, existing UCD guidelines cannot cover all relevant aspects, so the design process is becoming difficult; for example, a button should be located on the first page or not. This article presents the development of a mobile map application for park and rides users with user-centered design combined with the user experience. A brainstorming session was conducted gathering mobile application designers, programmer and commuters to generate ideas as to how people would use the application and how they would feel when using the application or user experience. All user experience findings were recorded with user journey. Several important aspects, such as a sequence of users’ activities and information needed, were identified when user experience was considered during the design process. Additional features (e.g. reward points) were added at an appropriate place to enhance user engagement. The user journey helped me better organize functions, information, and the sequence of the mobile application.

  24. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY BETWEEN PATIENTS WITH MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER AND NORMAL SUBJECTS Download Article

    Warangkana Chompoopan, Sipanut Silaket, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Suwanna Arunpongpaisal and Niramol Patjanasoontorn
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (150-154)
    • No of Download = 196

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    Major Depressive Disorder is one of the major mental health problems that affect the quality of life of the patients. The reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and elevated heart rate that associated with depression have been found as risk factors for cardiac mobility and mortality. These patients should be assessed regularly on HRV parameters and compare with those of normal subjects. This study aimed to compare heart rate variability between patients with the major depressive disorder and normal subjects. This study was conducted at a psychiatric department in Khon Kaen University, Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen province, Thailand. A cross-sectional analytic study design was used. Forty patients diagnosed with the major depressive disorder (who had been treated with antidepressants) were matched according to age, gender with 40 normal subjects participated. They were assessed on HRV for time domain (standard deviation normal to normal: SDNN, and the root mean square of successive differences: RMSSD) and frequency domain (High frequency: HF, low frequency: LF, and LF/HF ratio) using SA 3000P Digital. The results showed that The HRV in the patients and in the normal subjects were found with SDNN 28.60, 31.44; RMSSD 23.78, 26.73; HF 4.70, 5.04; LF 4.46, 5.01; and LF/HF 1.16, 1.35 respectively. However, No significant difference in the HRV variables between MDD and normal subjects except LF. Findings of this study show that HRV in the treated patients with major depressive disorder seems to be a little lower than the normal subjects. This may be due to the effects of well treated with antidepressants. It is suggested that HRV may be one of the outcome measures for this patient population.

  25. MOCAF TEMPEH DATES BISCUIT FOR THE IMPROVEMENT NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDERWEIGHT CHILDREN Download Article

    Fatmah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (155-161)
    • No of Download = 165

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    The prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition) in Indonesian toddlers have increased due to lower macro-nutrient intake and exposure to infectious diseases. It is necessary to intervene with supplementary feeding in the form of highly nutritious food products, such as biscuits made from flour enriched from mocaf from soybean and date jam. The study was conducted to assess the effects of consumption of mocaf tempeh dates biscuits with the nutritional status of KEP toddlers. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) with pre-post tests were used with 70 subjects, divided into 3 groups: 27 subjects in the treated group (mocaf tempeh dates biscuits), 26 subjects of control group 1 (tempeh dates biscuits), and 17 subjects in control group 2 (placebo biscuits). The intake of energy, protein, and fat, along with hemoglobin examination and blood albumin were collected pre-post intervention. A change in weight of 0.4 kg was found in the intervention group. The highest increase in height was found in control group 1 (1.7 cm). An increase in blood hemoglobin levels of 0.1 points was found in the intervention group and the control group 1. The albumin was decreased by 0.3 points in the intervention group. Weight gain in the intervention group was influenced by macro-nutrient intake. Intake of vitamin A, Fe, and Zn affected blood hemoglobin levels in post-intervention with the intervention group. It can be concluded that mocaf tempeh dates biscuits can be consumed by underweight children as an alternative food of Nutritional Supplementation Program.

  26. PREDICTORS OF BEHAVIOR INTENTION TO DEVELOP A GREEN UNIVERSITY: A CASE OF AN UNDERGRADUATE UNIVERSITY IN THAILAND Download Article

    Weerawat Ounsaneha1, Nahathai Chotklang, Orapin Laosee, Cheerawit Rattanapan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (162-168)
    • No of Download = 191

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    The aim of this study is to identify the level and predictor of behavior intention to develop a green university in the case of an undergraduate university in Thailand. The university students and staff at Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University under the Royal Patronage, Thailand were selected as the participants in this study using a structured questionnaire covering the six major criteria of the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking. The best predictor factors of the dependent variable were determined by multiple logistic regression. The results showed that a positive attitude towards transportation and education were found to be the most significant predictors of intention to develop green university behavior. This finding implied that the preparation stage in which the behavior intention to develop a green university in the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking is identified should be promoted to provide the opportunity for the development of a green university.

  27. A NEW FORMALIZATION OF DECISION-MAKERS' NEEDS Download Article

    Ahmad Outfarouin and Abdelmounaïm Abdali
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (169-176)
    • No of Download = 190

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    The development of a BI project goes through several phases. The analysis phase remains an upstream phase, which requires further investigation to overcome the major problems that arise during this phase and to anticipate the resolution of other problems that may arise in the other phases for the development of these BI projects. The complexity of the formalization of the decision-makers' needs (DN) is one of the problems that has been tried to be solved by proposing a new version of the meta-model of the formalization of informational goals, which have been implemented with models. This new version of the meta-model will facilitate to the analyst-designer the identification of decisional data from a set of decision-makers' goals, from which the facts' and dimensions' parameter of the star schemas can be extracted. In the remainder of this paper, the first part provides a state of the art of the DN formalization approaches and their models of representation, then the second part presents our new version of the meta-model of the goals’ formalization, and, finally, this work is completed with the conclusions and a future work part.

  28. ENGINEERING-ERGONOMICS VERSUS SOCIO-ECONOMICS: A CASE STUDY OF THE TOLL ROAD BALI MANDARA INDONESIA Download Article

    LilikSudiajeng, Igm Oka Aryawan and I Putu Astawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (177-184)
    • No of Download = 286

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    This study was conducted to determine why ergonomics is very difficult to implement in developing countries like Indonesia. Achieving a better life is a central goal of ergonomics. With this in mind, ergonomics has been well implemented in developed countries. Unfortunately the same is not necessarily true in developing countries such as Indonesia. Referring to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, most people find themselves still in the section on physiological needs of human survival. Security and comfort are often ignored in order to meet the basic needs. Such conditions can be encountered on Jalan Bypass Ngurah Rai, Bali - Indonesia. This research showed that the majority of people prefer to go through congestion streets in order to ensure their basic needs can be satisfied, although there is a Toll Road Bali Mandara (TRBM) designed which considers engineering ergonomic and provides a security, comfort, and productive trip. According to population growth and an increase in the number of vehicles, traffic congestion levels are also higher. As a result, the number of accidents has also increased. Previous research showed that the highest accident rates in Denpasar occurred at Jalan Bypass Ngurah Rai. The highest type of vehicles involved in the accidents was a motorcycle. This proves that an ergonomic toll road design, which provides safe and convenient traffic and infrastructure, has not been able to attract people to use it because of socio-economic (monetary) constraints.

  29. ESTIMATION OF MANGROVE CARBON STOCK WITH HYBRID METHOD USING IMAGE SENTINEL-2 Download Article

    Firman Farid Muhsoni, Abu Bakar Sambah, Muhammad Mahmudi and Dewa Gede Raka Wiadnya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (185-192)
    • No of Download = 277

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    Field survey data combined with remote sensing data were an ideal and practical method for estimating carbon stocks. The objective of this research was to get an estimation model of mangrove carbon stock with good accuracy. Modeling used hybrid methods, by combining satellite image analysis and field data. The result of this research was to get the mangrove carbon estimation model. Model 1 merging between NNIP vegetation index equation using regression of power/geometry and six variables multiple regression (NDRE or WVVI vegetation index, sediment depth, soil density,% C soil depth 0-15 cm, 15-50 cm and >50 cm). RMSE test resulted 0.4778 t 100 m-2 and % RMSE 16.12%. Model 2 NNIP vegetation index and three variable regression (VIRRE vegetation index, sediment depth, soil density). RMSE test resulted 0.5639 t 100 m-2 and % RMSE 19.03%. Model 3 uses NNIP vegetation index and two variable regression (NDRE vegetation index and sediment depth). RMSE test resulted 0.7295 t 100 m-2 and RMSE % 24.63%. Model 4 incorporation of NNIP vegetation index and multiple regression of 3 variables (VIRRE vegetation index, average sediment depth value 100.63 cm, soil density value 1.02 g cm-3). RMSE test resulted 1.0043 t 100 m-2 and % RMSE 33.89%.

  30. ASSESSMENT OF A POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR IN A YOGYAKARTA BASIN USING BROADBAND-NOISE ANALYSIS Download Article

    Madlazim and Tjipto Prastowo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (193-200)
    • No of Download = 259

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    The search for hydrocarbon reservoirs through geophysical exploration in a particular basin has been in common recently. In this study, a potential hydrocarbon reservoir situated in a Yogyakarta Basin in Central Java, Indonesia was assessed using broadband-noise spectral analysis of spectrograms recorded by 2 local seismic stations: UGM and YOGI, where the broadband data included 3 components of waveforms. The aims of this study are thus twofold; firstly, we report the characteristics of micro-tremor seismic signals generated by a hydrocarbon reservoir in the region of interest and then secondly, we examine these findings in the context of determining which seismic station is likely to be positioned above the potential reserve for hydrocarbons and estimating the depth of a hydrocarbon reservoir. The results of broadband-noise seismic experiments revealed that the peak of micro-tremor anomalies associated with a hydrocarbon reserve was only detected by YOGI station. This primary finding suggests that, instead of UGM station, the YOGI station is arguably lying above a potential hydrocarbon reservoir with the layer depth is estimated to be 12-35 m. Discussions on these results include the practical use of broadband-noise experiments with a low pass-filtered frequency in geotechnical and industrial applications.