Articles

  1. SHEAR STRENGTH ENHANCEMENT OF COMPACTED SOILS USING HIGH-CALCIUM FLY ASH-BASED GEOPOLYMER Download Article

    Soe Thiha, Chanodorm Lertsuriyakul and Decho Phueakphum
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1-9)
    • No of Download = 471

    Abstract

    close

    The objective of this study is to experimentally assess the efficiency of geopolymer for the strengthening of soil material. Geopolymer used in the study is a utilizing of the high-calcium fly-ash (FA) mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) as an alkaline activator. The ratio of NaOH and Na2SiO3 is 1:1. Three types of soils are used and each soil type is mixed with FA based geopolymer of 10% of dry soil by weight. Alkaline activator is fixed at 10% of optimum moisture content (OMC) of soil samples. Two conditions of soil sample were prepared for testing; soil samples mixed with fly-ash based geopolymer and mixed with tap water. They were compacted under the optimum moisture content then performed the direct shear test to determine the non-curing strength (at 0 days) and curing shear strength (at 7 days). The results indicate that OMC of silty sand and high plasticity silt (sludge) which mixed with fly-ash based geopolymer is slightly higher than those of sample mixed with tap water. OMC of a clayey soil is however slightly decreased when they were mixed with fly-ash based geopolymer. Soils mixed with fly-ash based geopolymer tend to give a higher state of the peak shear strength for curing sample about two times of soils mixed with tap water. This suggests that the fly-ash based geopolymer can be enhancing the shear strength of soils by increasing cohesion and friction angle. Soil improvement techniques using geopolymer can be applied for strengthening the soil embankment, soil slope, and earth dam foundation.

  2. LIQUEFACTION SIMULATION AND RELATED BEHAVIOR OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE ON OSAKA GULF COAST Download Article

    Keita Sugito, Tetsuya Okano and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (10-15)
    • No of Download = 402

    Abstract

    close

    The Kansai area has a high possibility of a huge plate-boundary-type earthquake within 30 years. If an earthquake occurs, the Osaka Gulf coast will be struck by severe liquefaction disasters. Therefore, we tried to apply LIQCA, which is often used for liquefaction analysis, to a site on the Osaka Gulf coast. The input earthquake motion is the seismic standard spectrum I, which is commonly used in Japan. The calculation time continued until the excess pore water pressure dissipated. The site has an underground structure, so we investigated not only the liquefaction phenomenon of the ground itself but also the behavior of the underground structure. The results of this analysis indicate that these soil layers of the target area become liquefied. After the excess pore water pressure dissipates, the ground surface settles in the vertical direction and moves in the horizontal direction. In addition, in the vicinity of the underground structure center, it rises in the vertical direction and moves in the horizontal direction.

  3. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION ON THE BUILDING FIRE – A CASE STUDY Download Article

    Rajmund Kuti, Geza Zolyomi and Orsolya K. Kegyes-Brassai
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (16-21)
    • No of Download = 370

    Abstract

    close

    Closed-space fires often occur in Hungary, so it is necessary to examine the effects of fires on building structures, taking into account Hungarian architectural features. Fires inside the buildings are characterized by intense heat development and smoke generation that can cause permanent damage to the building structures. Heat and smoke extraction during fire extinguishing is based usually on natural ventilation. Not only being a non-effective process also makes it more difficult to accomplish firefighting tasks. Experiments in this research have been conducted with mobile positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in order to increase the efficiency of the firefighting process and to reduce the adverse effects of fires. The tests have been carried out in unused buildings, providing real conditions. Practical application has been examined in order to reduce the harmful effects of closed-space fires and to provide guidance for professional use. This research based on observations and experiments contributes to enhancing fire safety.

  4. REINFORCEMENT EFFECT OF GEOGRID IN THE BALLAST AND SUB- BALLAST OF THE RAILWAY TRACK Download Article

    Saad Farhan Ibrahim, Ali Jabbar Kadhim and Harith Basim Khalaf
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (22-27)
    • No of Download = 368

    Abstract

    close

    The railway transportation in Iraq is essentially irreplaceable for its significant role in economic growth through revenue derived from the movement of goods and raw materials and passengers between Iraq main cities. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of geogrid reinforcement on railway tracklayers through the use of Abaqus program. The ABAQUS program was considered as multipurpose modeling program, the program cannot only solve the stress-strain problems but also other parameters like heat transfer, Contact, dynamics, and electromagnetics. The model dimensions are (800*800*600 mm), subgrade layer is 400 mm thick and sub-ballast layer and ballast layer are 100 mm thick. Some laboratory testing was carried out to determine the materials properties that were used as inputs for the finite element Abaqus program. The tested models are an unreinforced model, sub-ballast reinforced model, and ballast reinforced model and a double reinforced model consisting of geogrid reinforcement in the sub-ballast layer and ballast layer. The result showed that using reinforcement layer would reduce model settlement with a range between (38-18) percentage for total model settlement for the different models that have been tested. In addition, it is obvious that use of geogrid under the ballast layer is more effective to reduce model settlement if there is an economical restraint to use only one layer of reinforcement.

  5. DETERMINATION OF THE APPROPRIATE IRRIGATION METHODS BASED ON SOIL ANALYSIS FOR UPLAND FIELDS IN MIE PREFECTURE OF JAPAN Download Article

    Abdul Saboor Rahmany, Hajime Narioka, Takamitsu Kajisa and Homayoon Ganji
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (28-33)
    • No of Download = 376

    Abstract

    close

    Inappropriate irrigation methods lead to loss much water in most upland fields worldwide. Land suitability is one of the good management practices for determining appropriate irrigation methods in upland fields. To determine land suitability, various soil experiments as determination of basic physical soil properties, permeability, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture characteristics method are important. This study was conducted on soil experiment with the aim to provide a detailed comprehensive understanding of soil capabilities for applying certain irrigation methods in two upland fields, broccoli field (BF) and tomato field (TF), in Mie prefecture of Japan. Soil physical structure properties, water holding capacity, and hydraulic properties were determined using disturb and undisturbed soil samples on laboratory bases. The results obtained showed that TF had deeper effective soil layer of 30 cm, better structure (more porosity, better pores connectivity, and channeling), the water holding capacity of 0.082 mm mm-1, and higher hydraulic conductivity, compared to BF. It is concluded that TF is suitable for applying shallow surface irrigation method, while the BF have better response on micro-irrigation methods which prevents water pounding in this fields. Application of this approach can improve irrigation practices and efficiency and decreases water loses through accurate irrigation scheduling and application management of irrigation water in upland field agriculture system, especially in dry areas.

  6. REVIEW OF THE INFLUENCING FACTORS OF INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT Download Article

    Mohamad Satori, Erri N. Megantara, Ina Primiana F.M.S, Budhi Gunawan
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (34-40)
    • No of Download = 406

    Abstract

    close

    Solid waste management (SWM) in various cities around the world is still a serious and complex problem. Currently, SWM causes problems not only in an environmental context but also in social and economic contexts. Therefore, integrated waste management (IWM) is an option that needs to be explored in municipal SWM. In this regard, it is necessary to develop models of an IWM system to integrate the formal system (government) with non-formal systems (informal sector/IS and community-based activity). To integrate all three groups’ roles in an integrated system, as theoretically there are 59 factors that influence IWM. However, not all factors are relevant to the implementation in Bandung municipality because every city and country has different situations and priority problems. For the case in Bandung municipality, based on studies, there are only 17 factors that influence IWM, i.e. waste generation, infrastructure, handled waste, reduction of waste, residual handling, final processing site, population/source of waste, mind-set and lifestyle, socialisation, recognition of IS, organisation of IS, clarity for the role of all stakeholders, accessibility of waste, quantity and quality of recyclable waste, price of recyclable material, waste picker income, and incentives or financial loans.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION SURVEYORS IN THAILAND Download Article

    Supacha Siriwongyingcharoen, Sunchai Inthapichai and Narin Sridokmai
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (41-47)
    • No of Download = 344

    Abstract

    close

    An occupational standard for construction surveyors and the desired skills of surveyors in Thailand’s construction industry were articulated. The research was conducted by studying data from previous research worldwide. The results were used as a guideline to summarize the conceptual framework of the methodology by arranging a seminar attended by 15 experts with experience in construction surveying and by performing functional analysis involving the key purpose, role, and function; unit of competency; and elements of competency. Subsequently, the results were evaluated, and the standard certification was verified by experts by analyzing the congruence index. The experts agreed in full and certified the research results evaluation on the professional development process of construction surveyors. The process of assessing and certifying the standard of surveyors in Thailand consists of 39 units of competency and 110 elements of competency. Based on the research, the most important competence of regular use in the survey with8 elements of competency was selected as the model to evaluate, involving 15 participants from Unique Engineering & Construction PCL. The experiment was conducted on the operational unit in the project areas. To evaluate the professional qualification level along with knowledge and skill assessment criteria, an instrument was developed. Using the developed instruments for assessment of knowledge and skills, scores of 100% and at least 80% on two sets of assessment criteria were regarded as passing. This revealed that all selected people who were assessed met the criteria of professional qualification in the construction surveyors.

  8. LESSONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS FROM THE MERSEY FOREST BY NETWORKING PARTNERSHIP FOR TWENTY YEARS Download Article

    Tomoko Miyagawa, Clare Olver, Noriko Otsuka, Takefumi Kurose and Hirokazu Abe
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (48-54)
    • No of Download = 322

    Abstract

    close

    In the UK, community forest projects have created an increase of new accessible open green spaces in post-industrial areas. However, there is a scarcity of sustainable funding for long-term management. Therefore, the partnership is recognized to be a key mechanism to maximize the benefits and to share the risks with a range of organization to maintain the quality of green spaces. This study is to clarify the achievements and the roles of the Mersey Forest over the last twenty years in developing partnership approaches in the Northwest of England. The study methods are based on literature reviews regarding on published literature on environmental regeneration and the data provided from the Mersey Forest, and interviews with representatives of the Mersey Forest. The first 10 years from 1994 to 2004 focused on planting trees for creating new and extending woodland. After that opportunity for large-scale new planting decreased and there was a need for managing the newly created open green spaces. Therefore, it has entered in the management phase and the role of the Mersey Forest is shifting to strengthen partnership working by providing advice to landowners. It also became clear that community forest approaches have been achieved together with landowners and partners through partnership working led by the Mersey Forest for over twenty years. Thus, the Mersey Forest has evolved from a governmental inspired organization to a community empowered organization.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE JAKARTA BAY RECLAMATION ON THE SURROUNDING TIDAL ELEVATION AND TIDAL CURRENT Download Article

    Harman Ajiwibowo and Munawir Bintang Pratama
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (55-65)
    • No of Download = 326

    Abstract

    close

    The Jakarta Bay artificial island reclamation is a part of the spatial arrangement of the Province of DKI Jakarta which is stated in Governor Regulation No. 121/2012. The regulation divides the area into three sub-regions, west, middle and east. In the middle sub-region, the influence of the reclamation of artificial islands, named I, J, K, L and M islands, on the tidal elevation and tidal current is investigated using hydrodynamic modeling with inputs of the river discharges coming into the bay. The plan to build a gate at the southern side of L island is also a part of the study. For normal river discharge, the existence of the reclaimed islands does not influence the tidal elevation significantly, whereas the tidal current is affected by a 200% intensification at a few points. For flood river discharge with a 25-year return period, the tidal elevation is more unstable, with the maximum rising or falling by 2 cm at most locations. The current phase shift is found, and along with the current intensification of round 200%, there is a reduction of the current magnitude. The reclamation and the gate cause some tidal changes, although these are still within the normal range that can accommodate daily activities. The reclamation scenario with the gate is better for the channel at the eastern side of L island since it results in a lower tidal elevation.

  10. A REVIEW OF SELECTED UNEXPECTED LARGE SLOPE FAILURES Download Article

    Marthinus Sonnekus and John Victor Smith
    • Article Type: Review Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (66-73)
    • No of Download = 333

    Abstract

    close

    Significant advancements in the application of soil and rock mechanics have been achieved in managing the risk of large-scale slope instability. In practice, however, unexpected slope failures do occur, sometimes with significant safety and economic implications for nearby communities, public infrastructure or the environment. This review focus on large slope failure case studies, considering the slope failure mechanisms and the effectiveness of the controls adopted in managing the geotechnical risk. The role of appropriate data collection and interpretation in underpinning analysis methods is investigated. The impact of levels of uncertainty of input data on different methods of analysis is addressed in the paper. In some instances, the slope failure mechanisms are not understood and can therefore not be incorporated into geotechnical models. It is also found in this review that the safety implications for communities located in the failure path were not initially evident, in some case, resulting in significant loss of life. A thorough understanding of the failure mechanism and triggers is essential for assessing slope stability conditions. In addition, reliable stability monitoring, geological and hydrogeological data are required for determining slope stability conditions. It is also evident from this review that time-dependent behavior is likely to result in shear strength reduction and should be considered for long-term slope stability.

  11. RESPONSE OF DIODIA VIRGINIANA (RUBIACEAE) APPLIED TO DAM RESERVOIR SLOPES AS A COVER PLANT, JAPAN Download Article

    Taizo Uchida, Yuya Imamura, Yoshifumi Kochi, Mamoru Yamada, Kunihiko Fukaura, Aki Matsumoto, William T. Haller and Lyn A. Gettys
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (74-78)
    • No of Download = 284

    Abstract

    close

    Reservoir slopes of dams are typically bare or sparsely vegetated due to their steep inclination, long-term submergence, marked fluctuation of water levels and impact of waves, which promote soil erosion and cause water turbidity, deterioration of the landscape, and disrupt ecosystem functioning. Using plants to stabilize slopes and prevent erosion is difficult, and the introduction of plants for this purpose has been extensively debated. This study examined the effectiveness of Virginia buttonweed (Rubiaceae: Diodia virginiana L.) for stabilizing the exposed slopes of the Matsubara Dam in western Japan- Diodia virginiana was originally introduced to a 0.1-hectare experimental area on the dam slopes from 1994 to 1997. Since that time, D. virginiana flourished; in 2008 it was widespread around the dam, growing in harsh environments such as steep slopes and shoreline, and by 2016, the distribution and density of the species increased. These characteristics of D. virginiana growth mean that the species is well suited for use as a cover plant for preventing erosion on dam reservoir slopes.

  12. MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR COASTAL AQUIFERS UTILIZING NEW SURROGATE MODELS Download Article

    Alvin Lal and Bithin Datta
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (79-85)
    • No of Download = 293

    Abstract

    close

    Coastal aquifers are hydraulically connected to the sea and therefore susceptible to saltwater intrusion problems. This study proposes the utilization of a new surrogate model within coupled simulation-optimization (S/O) model for the management of coastal aquifers subjected to density-dependent saltwater intrusion processes. The simulation of the transient 3-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport model is based on the solution of an implemented numerical simulation model. Direct coupling of the numerical simulation model into the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is computationally expensive. Hence, the solution of the numerical simulation model with random input variables are used to train and test the support vector machine regression (SVMR) surrogate models for approximately simulating the flow and transport processes. The performances of the new surrogate models are evaluated using various performance evaluation criteria. The resulting validated SVMR surrogate models are coupled to the MOGA and implemented for an illustrative coastal aquifer with an aim to develop efficient coastal aquifer management strategies. Based on the objective functions, execution of S/O model presented a set of optimal groundwater withdrawal rates from the simulated aquifer. It also ensured salinity levels at the designated monitoring wells are constrained within specified limits. The efficiency of the new SVMR surrogate models is also demonstrated. Evaluation results suggested that the projected S/O model is an effective way of developing feasible and reliable coastal aquifer management strategies. It also enhances the possibility of solving more realistic large-scale problems and developing regional-scale coastal aquifer management methodologies.

  13. CORRELATION AMONG THE SOIL PARAMETERS OF THE KARNAPHULI RIVER TUNNEL PROJECT Download Article

    Khondoker Istiak Ahmad, Masnun Abrar, Sultan Al Shafian and Hossain Md. Shahin
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (86-90)
    • No of Download = 278

    Abstract

    close

    Defining relationships among the soil parameters and strength properties have become a popular research topic among the soil mechanics researchers in recent years. As conducting laboratory tests are quite tiresome and time-consuming, investigating interconnection and correlation among the soil parameters using collected data will help to understand and predict the characteristics of soil effortlessly. This research aims at stating regression and product moment correlation analysis between the strength parameters and index properties of the soils of Karnaphuli river tunnel project site. Around 120 borings were done in that site to determine both the index and strength properties of the soil in the laboratories. In this paper, multiple linear regression analysis was developed for the cohesion and liquid limit along with the collected explanatory variables and correlation analysis was done to quantify the direction and strength of the linear association. This equation supports to adopt different characteristics of the soils of Karnaphuli River and additionally a statistical significance of correlation among different soil parameters have also been unfolded. Finally, the equation is compared with some of commonly used classical soil mechanics equation to determine the acceptability of this correlation.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF SEGMENTAL TUNNEL LININGS UNDER THE IMPACT OF EARTHQUAKES: A CASE STUDY FROM THE TUNNEL OF HANOI METRO SYSTEM Download Article

    Gospodarikov Alexandr and Thanh Nguyen Chi
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (91-98)
    • No of Download = 298

    Abstract

    close

    The current metro systems have become an important part of the public transport system in major cities around the world. With the development of construction technology as well as technical requirements, the segmental tunnel lining has become the main lining used protective for tunnels. The main effect of segmental tunnel lining when it is used for tunnels that is ability strengthened stability of tunnels under the impact of earthquakes. This paper presents methods for calculating to effects of earthquakes on tunnels lining in two cases: tunnel continuous lining and segmental tunnel lining by identifying internal forces present on tunnels lining and the deformation of tunnels lining. Based on results obtained, analysis the effect of the joints for segmental tunnel lining under seismic loads and the effect of the rotation stiffness of joints to the segmental tunnel lining when have got the impact of earthquakes to the tunnel. This paper used parameters of the tunnel in Hanoi metro system as a case study.

  15. INFLUENCE OF HEAT-AND-POWER ENTERPRISES ON THE HYDROSPHERE Download Article

    Tatyana Germanovna Korotkova, Svyatoslav Andreevich Bushumov, Svetlana Dmitrievna Burlaka, Natalya Yurevna Istoshina and Hazret Ruslanovich Siukhov
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (99-106)
    • No of Download = 329

    Abstract

    close

    Power units of thermal power plants (TPP), state-owned district power plants (SDPP), combined heat and power plants (CHPP) are mega-complexes, the maintenance of which requires huge investments and significant natural resources (fossil fuels and water). The operation of the units leads to a permanent negative impact on the environment, in spite of strict standards for emissions and discharges. This article analyzes the impact of power plants on water bodies. The following measurements are given for the runoff of the Novocherkassk SDPP to the Don River (Russia, Rostov Region): temperature, odor, power of hydrogen (pH-value), transparency, suspended materials, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), TBOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), mineralization, chlorides, sulfates, hydrogen carbonates, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium + potassium, ammonium ions, nitrites, nitrates, phosphorus phosphates, total ferrum, copper, aluminum, synthetic surface active substances, petroleum products, toxicity. It is established that the indicators are within the permissible values established by regulatory documents (Russia).

  16. PORTLAND CEMENT CONTAINING FLY ASH, EXPANDED PERLITE, AND PLASTICIZER FOR MASONRY AND PLASTERING MORTARS Download Article

    Satakhun Detphan, Tanakorn Phoo-ngernkham, Vanchai Sata, Chudapak Detphan and Prinya Chindaprasirt
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (107-113)
    • No of Download = 329

    Abstract

    close

    Cracking of masonry and plastering mortars of clay brick wall was a major problem in the hot climate area. The problem was the worst for the wall made of lightweight blocks. In this research, masonry and plastering mortars made from Portland cement, fly ash, expanded perlite, mortar plasticizer, and sand were tested. The testing program included the determination of water demand, setting time, water retention, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, density, and elastic modulus. For the masonry mortar, the mixes with high calcium fly ash with or without plasticizer could be used with required properties and reduced cost. The mix of expanded perlite gave water retention over the required 70%. The mix containing fly ash and 0.2% plasticizer gave water retention slightly less than 70%. It was recommended that the mix with expanded perlite should be used for indoor plastering and the mix with fly ash and plasticizer should be used for outdoor plastering.

  17. APPLICATION OF SWAN MODEL FOR HINDCASTINGWAVE HEIGHT IN JEPARA COASTAL WATERS, NORTH JAVA, INDONESIA Download Article

    Yati Muliati, Ricky Lukman Tawekal, Andojo Wurjanto, Jaya Kelvin, and Widodo Setiyo Pranowo,
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (114-120)
    • No of Download = 350

    Abstract

    close

    SWAN (Simulating Wave Near-shore) is a numerical wave model for hindcasting/forecasting wave parameters in coastal areas. This numerical model is chosen because is suitable for shallow water. This study was conducted to verify the results of wave height hindcasting in Jepara coastal waters. This is expected to support wave characteristic research based on wave forecasting for 10 years in the waters between Java, Sumatera and Kalimantan. The model is run with the third-generation mode (GEN3), which allow wind input, quadruplet and triad interactions, whitecapping, and breaking. Wind data is obtained from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and the bathymetry from GEBCO (General Bathymetric Chart of The Oceans). The validation of the model and buoy data during July - December 1993 shows a good result (Root Mean Square Error = 0.166 and correlation/ linear regression = 0.807). Based on the literature, qualitatively the model has been verified with other simulation from another model in the same location.

  18. CO-BENEFIT ASSESSMENT OF LOGISTICS OPTIMIZATION PROGRAMS: THE CASE OF THE PHILIPPINE GREATER CAPITAL REGION Download Article

    Krister Ian Daniel Roquel, Alexis Fillone and Krista Danielle Yu
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (121-128)
    • No of Download = 347

    Abstract

    close

    In recognition of the impact of logistics sprawl on economic development, there arises a need to find the optimum direction in freight transport development. This paper employs the co-benefit framework to assess three freight development programs: a) Freight consolidation centers; b) Freight volume shift to outer ports and c) Rail freight. Using the benefits of travel time reduction, operating cost reduction and savings in accident losses and CO2, SOx, NOx, and PM emissions as assessment metrics, the policy assessment procedure undertaken was able to cover the interests of both the stakeholders and the community. It was found that for the Greater Capital Region of the Philippines, shifting freight traffic to the outer ports while consolidating truck trips at designated locations was most effective, resulting to a combined annual benefit of as much as PhP 362.72 billion by the year 2050. Modeling results showed that shifting freight traffic to the outer ports dramatically reduces travel time, while consolidation of truck trips optimizes freight operations, and thus, reduces emissions. It was also found that this combination has a profound relationship, emphasized by the traffic safety benefit.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE FOR USE AS BASE COURSE MATERIAL Download Article

    Kongrat Nokkaew
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (129-136)
    • No of Download = 348

    Abstract

    close

    This study extensively evaluated the soil water characteristic curve and resilient modulus characteristic of recycled pavement aggregate including recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), recycled asphalt pavement (RPM), and recycled pavement material (RPM) when used as a base course in road structure. The three recycled aggregates with similar gradation were selected for this study. The resilient modulus was determined for each material according to NCHRP 1-28A procedure. The soil-water characteristics curves (SWCC) were determined for each material. The major distresses including longitudinal cracking, alligator cracking, total rutting, and International roughness index (IRI) were predicted from the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (M-EPDG). The result showed that among recycled aggregates, RPM provided the highest for all distresses while RCA had the lowest distresses. Using recycled pavement aggregates as base course provided lower distress than limestone which was used as a control conventional aggregate. This implied that recycled aggregate had high quality which can use as a base course in road construction.

  20. PHYSICAL MODELING OF PROPOSED POROUS DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO SOLVE INUNDATION PROBLEM Download Article

    Ahmad Rifa and Noriyuki Yasufuku
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (137-142)
    • No of Download = 321

    Abstract

    close

    Post rain inundations that occurred in Prambanan Temple yard interfere the visitor’s mobility and heavy equipment that operated for restoration activities in the temple. A typical porous drainage system was proposed using waste material from Merapi eruption to reduce the inundations. Research on the characteristics of the waste material becomes important due to the availability of so many supplies from these materials and it has not been utilized optimally. A full scale of physical modeling experimental test, with a modified equipment to determine the performance of the porous drainage system, was proposed in this study. Physical modeling of the porous drainage system is expected to represent the actual conditions in the field. The groundwater level was designed in two conditions, deep groundwater level based on the natural field condition and shallow groundwater level that is an extreme condition that may occur in the field. In this test, rainfall simulator was built to flow the discharge constantly into this physical modeling. The effectiveness of this system amounted to 20% of the drainage capacity in natural field condition during the rainfall duration of 2.183 hours. In the extreme condition, the effectiveness of the system amounted to 75% of the drainage capacity during the rainfall duration of 2.383 hours. It shows that the porous drainage system is quite effective when applied at Prambanan Temple yard that has an average rainfall duration of 2.375 hours. The proposed porous drainage system is expected to solve the inundation problem in Prambanan Temple yard.

  21. REMOVAL OF COPPER IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING PALM SHELL CHARCOAL ACTIVATED BY NAOH Download Article

    Muhammad Faisal and Asri Gani, Abubakar
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (143-147)
    • No of Download = 337

    Abstract

    close

    Charcoal nanoparticles obtained through pyrolysis of palm kernel and activated by NaOH were prepared for adsorption of copper ions (Cu2+) from aqueous solutions. The effect of contact time (30–150 min) and initial adsorbate concentration (30–150 ppm) on adsorption of Cu2+ ions was investigated using batch adsorption experiments. Adsorption efficiency, suitability of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models, and kinetics of adsorption were studied. The results show that efficiency of Cu2+ ion removal decreased with increasing initial adsorbate concentration. Higher removal efficiencies (99%) were achieved at initial adsorbate concentration of 30 ppm and contact time of 90 min. The adsorption process was well described by the Freundlich isotherm model with an exponent (n) and equilibrium constant (Kf) of 9.59×10-5 mg/g and 0.182, respectively.

  22. EARTHQUAKE MICROZONATION STUDY ON BATUBESI DAM OF NUHA, EAST LUWU, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA Download Article

    Sunaryo, Harti Umbu Mala, and Anom Prasetio
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (148-154)
    • No of Download = 402

    Abstract

    close

    A study entitled to Earthquake Microzonation on Batubesi Dam of Nuha, East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia has been conducted. The study was conducted to obtain a map of peak ground acceleration (PGA) based on the historical seismicity in Sorowako and surrounding area, as well seismic vulnerability index (Kg) based on the measurement of local microtremor on site. The study was conducted at a location between 2.71428 degree - 2.70585 degree South Latitude and 121.3013 degree - 121.3117 degrees East Longitude. This research is expected to obtain the spatial distribution of the amplification factor (Ao), resonant frequency (Fo), PGA, and Kg to estimate the earthquake hazards potential on location. The maximum ground acceleration value or PGA obtained by microtremor wave analysis based on Kanai formula. As for determining the Kg used Nakamura or Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method. Based on the results of data processing obtained the value of PGAmin is 0.079 Gal. at the point of MSBB25, PGAmax is 0.381Gal at the point of MASBB21, and PGAavg is 0.18 Gal. As for the Kg obtained value of Kgmin is 0.28 at the point of MSBB22, Kgmax is 43.42 at the point of MSBB10, and Kgavg is 9.81. While based on the interpretation by means of the PGA value has been estimated that the MMI intensity is in the range of VII-IX with seismic risk level at a medium range of III until great of III. By means of the dominant frequency (fo) and dominant period (To) was estimated that soil classification for Kanai in the range of II until IV and the range of B - C for Omote-Nakajima.

  23. THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF NATURAL GAS AND ITS ROLE IN THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF ENERGY PRODUCTION Download Article

    Oleg E. Aksyutin, Alexander G. Ishkov, Konstantin V. Romanov, Vladimir A. Grachev
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (155-160)
    • No of Download = 402

    Abstract

    close

    The study of the carbon footprint of natural gas in order to assess its impact on global climatic processes has shown that the carbon footprint of natural gas at the stages of production, transportation, storage, and distribution amounts to not more than 17 kg CO2-eq./GJ (16.5 – in 2012; 15 – in 2013; and 12.2 – in 2014) and is reduced yearly by 1 CO2-eq./GJ. The comparative study has revealed that its value is less than that of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. When delivering to Europe through various corridors, carbon footprint varies from 18 kg CO2-eq./GJ for the Ukrainian Corridor to 9 kg CO2-eq./GJ for the "Nord Stream". The proportion of the methane (CH4) carbon footprint prior to use in a particular power generating process is 30 g CO2-eq./kWh of a generation that amounts to 4.5-7.5% of the total carbon footprint at natural gas-fired power generation (398-662 g CO2-eq./kWh), and to 2.8% of the carbon footprint at coal-fired generation. This indicates the high efficiency of gas fuel in terms of its positive impact on reducing the global climate change

  24. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF LANDSLIDE IN SRI MULYO, MALANG, INDONESIA USING RESISTIVITY METHOD AND DRILLING CORE DATA Download Article

    Adi Susilo, Eko Andi Suryo, Fina Fitriah, Muwardi Sutasoma and Bahtiar
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (161-168)
    • No of Download = 426

    Abstract

    close

    Research on the landslide in Sri Mulyo Village, Dampit Subdistrict, Malang District, Indonesia has been implemented. This research is conducted to know the condition of the subsurface area for information in landslide vulnerability analysis. In addition, this research was undertaken to mitigate landslide in minimizing casualties and material losses. The study was done using resistivity method, the configuration of dipole-dipole supported by drilling core lab test result. There is five resistivity measuring lines with trajectory lengths ranging from 100 m, 200 meters, and 300 meters. The results of the resistivity indicate that the subsurface lithology of Sri Mulyo Village is composed of clays (9.3-85.8 Ω.m), tuff (178-779 Ω.m) and breccia (≥ 1629 Ω.m). The sliding plane at the research area is the boundary between clays and tuffs. The result of the correlation between geoelectric and drilling core data showed that the research area was dominated by a 10m depth of clay. High rainfall, clay thickness and vegetation (coffee) exhibit high levels of vulnerability to occur landslides. Possible landslide direction is from West-West to Southeast with creep avalanche type.

  25. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH MODELLING OF CONCRETE MIXED WITH FLY ASH AND WASTE CERAMICS USING k-NEAREST NEIGHBOR ALGORITHM Download Article

    Kenneth Jae T. Elevado, Joenel G. Galupino and Ronaldo S. Gallardo
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (169-174)
    • No of Download = 419

    Abstract

    close

    Excessive materials are being manufactured, and along with it are the waste products that are being produced due to the rapid growth of industries. In the Philippines, wastes such as fly ash and damaged ceramics are being considered as a construction material since there are recent researches that proved their properties are comparable to cement and aggregates. In this study, compressive strength tests (ASTM C 39) were conducted to obtain the compressive strength of the concrete mixed with varying amounts fly ash and waste ceramics. Moreover, specimens were also subjected to varying days of curing to assess their strength development. Due to the availability of a wide range of data, machine learning model, such as the k-nearest neighbor, were also considered; it can predict an unknown target parameter without consuming tremendous time and resources. Thus, this study aimed to provide a k-nearest neighbor model that will serve as a reference to predict the compressive strength of concrete while incorporating waste ceramic tiles as a replacement to coarse aggregates while varying the amount of fly ash as a partial substitute to cement. The k-nearest neighbor model used was validated to ensure the predictions are acceptable.

  26. STABILIZATION OF SANDY SOIL USING RECYCLE WASTE TIRE CHIPS Download Article

    Mohammed Abdullateef Al-Neami
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (175-180)
    • No of Download = 483

    Abstract

    close

    Waste or scrap materials cause a lot of environmental problems and lead to economic problems. To minimize these problems, it is necessary to find safe ways to reduce the harms on environmental issues and on the economy accompanying with accumulated large wastes. This study introduces an attempt to improve sandy soil using a new additive in form of waste tires chips instead of conventional kinds used in the soil stabilization. Different percentages of waste tire chips are hand mixed with dry sand as a trial to stabilize the sand with local cheap materials. Some geotechnical properties of composite specimens of (soil + tire chips) were studied and the main findings of testing approved the ability to stabilize sand effectively using scrap tire chips. Shear strength of sand was increased as a result to increase both friction angle and cohesion after adding tire chips to sand. A significant reduction in specific gravity and maximum dry density with a little reduction in optimum moisture content was marked with increase tire chips content in sand due to the low unit weight of tire chips. Analyzing the results gained from CBR test showed that sand stabilized with tire chips gave CBR more than about 1.6 times compared with pure sand which means the load bearing capacity of treated sand is increased due to increase the physical bonds between sand particles and tire chips.

  27. THE CHANGES OF ENVIRONMENT AND AQUATIC ORGANISM BIODIVERSITY IN EAST COAST OF SIDOARJO DUE TO LAPINDO HOT MUD Download Article

    Tarzan Purnomo and Fida Rachmadiarti
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (181-186)
    • No of Download = 373

    Abstract

    close

    Lapindo hot mud to overflow and flood the east coast of Sidoarjo for 9 years has caused changes in environmental factors, particularly aquatic ecosystems environment. This has an impact on biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems in the eastern coastal Sidoarjo. This study aims to determine the quality of aquatic ecosystems on the east coast of Sidoarjo contaminated by Lapindo hot mud and the impact on biodiversity of aquatic organism. Data taken from 5 station consists of wetlands ecosystems, river, brackish water ponds, estuaries, and coastal covering area districts of Porong, Jabon, Tanggulangin, and Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. Determination of stations and substations did purposively based on distribution maps Lapindo hot mud. Data obtained in the form of physical and chemical parameters of waters, biodiversity of aquatic organism analyzed descriptively and quantitatively and compared as well as the quality standard. The results showed contamination of aquatic ecosystems by Lapindo hot mud has led to changes environment factors and declining biodiversity of the aquatic organism in the eastern coastal of Sidoarjo.

  28. ASSESSING URBAN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND: WATER QUALITY AND AUTHORITY ORGANIZATION Download Article

    Jareeya Yimrattanabavorn, Oranee Rungrueang, Sudjit Karuchit and Pensupa Wirikitkhul
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (187-194)
    • No of Download = 321

    Abstract

    close

    Providing safe water supply is one of the important public health priorities, the water quality of water supply is closely associated with human health. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of water in the urban water supply systems and their authority organizations including the existing performance of the water supply systems and their organizations. The sampling locations were covered by 4 cities, namely Nakhon Ratchasima (Korat), Chaiyaphum, Buriram and Surin provinces. There was the total of 13 sampling site locations of the urban water supply systems which are owned by the provincial and municipal waterworks authorities. Water samples of each sampling site location were collected from water resources, storage tanks, and household water taps, and analyzed for various parameters. The results showed that the water quality of the urban water supply systems had met the water quality standards for the parameters: turbidity, TSS, TDS, Nitrate, and total coliform, except color and iron due to the retention time of the sedimentation process which was not the proper range. Besides, there were problems with the residual chlorine in storage tanks and household tap water which was lower than the standard limit and might affect population health. There was no difference between the performance of the provincial and municipal waterworks authorities. The outcome of this study can support the improvement of the urban water supply systems and their authority organizations.

  29. STABILITY CHART FOR UNSUPPORTED SQUARE TUNNELS IN HOMOGENEOUS UNDRAINED CLAY Download Article

    Jim Shiau, Mohammad Mirza Hassan and Zakaria Hossain
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (195-201)
    • No of Download = 320

    Abstract

    close

    This short technical note investigates the stability of a plane strain square tunnel in homogeneous undrained clay using shear strength reduction technique. The finite difference program FLAC is used to determine the factor of safety for unsupported square tunnels where an automatic generation of program script is developed using FISH programming. This developed procedure enables parametric studies to be conducted in an effective way with great efficiency. Numerical results, expressed in term of a factor of safety, are compared with published classical upper and lower bound limit solutions. The comparison between these two numerical methods finds a very good agreement and the confidence level of the current FLAC model has increased significantly. With the success of model validations, a number of stability design charts for square tunnels using dimensionless ratios are presented for practical scenarios in a similar way to Taylor’s slope stability charts. Examples are illustrated to show the potential usefulness of the produced design charts for practicing engineers.