Articles

  1. REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION BORDERS MAPS OF EGYPT BASED ON KRIGING SPATIAL STATISTICS METHOD Download Article

    Mohammed A. El-Shirbeny and Bassam Abdellatif
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-8)
    • No of Download = 524

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    The main idea of this research depends on defining and mapping the borders of minimum and maximum reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) on a spatial and temporal basis (over the period from 1979 to 2014 in every region in Egypt). Acceptable results could be achieved through using appropriate equation adjusted to local conditions to calculate ETo. These results should help the Egyptian government and policy makers to identify priorities for agricultural land reclamation, where the most important limiting factor in Egypt, for the agricultural sector, is water. Estimation of ETo according to FAO-Penman-Monteith (FPM) method depends on Location, Elevation, Temperature, solar radiation (sun shining hours), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed which are mandatory parameters to calculate ETo. Although the scarcity of climate data is a major problem in most developing countries, the climatic mathematical models are considered as the best solution for none or rare climatic database regions. These models depend on many parameters which can be derived from the remotely sensed data. The modeled data must be evaluated and calibrated with a measured data. The modeled Tmax, Tmin and Rad were validated with measured data with R2 as high as 0.97, 0.85 and 0.95 respectively. The R2 between obtained ETo from measured data and the resulted ETo from modeled data was 0.9. The resulted linear equation was used to calibrate the results of ETo from modeled data. Kiriging-spatial-statistics method (KSS) was used to generate spatial surface maps of ETo. Monthly minimum, maximum and mean ETo maps were produced using KSS method.

  2. ENSEMBLE MLP NETWORKS FOR VOICES COMMAND CLASSIFICATION TO CONTROL MODEL CAR VIA PIFACE INTERFACE OF RASPBERRY PI Download Article

    Narissara Eiamkanitchat, Nontapat Kuntekul and Phasit Panyaphruek
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (9-15)
    • No of Download = 209

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    This research, exploration displays the aftereffects of utilizing the blend of the multi-layer perceptron network system to classify Thai speech. The parameters of the training process are used in the mobile application to using Thai voice commands to control the model car. The PiFace interface of the Raspberry Pi is attached to the model car for receiving the command from mobile and control the model car. The 1,000 Thai voice commands of both men and ladies are used as the training set in the experiment. The preliminary experiments have been done to find the best possible structure of the classification model, and the appropriate proportion of classes in the training set. From the experiment results using 1 network for one voice command, the average accuracy of the classification results in the environment without noise is higher than 80%, which considered favorable in the speech recognition field of study.

  3. SOME PROPERTIES OF THE PRODUCT OF (P,Q) – FIBONACCI AND (P,Q) - LUCAS NUMBER Download Article

    Alongkot Suvarnamani and Mongkol Tatong
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-19)
    • No of Download = 477

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    Some mathematicians study the basic concept of the generalized Fibonacci sequence and Lucas sequence which are the (p,q) – Fibonacci sequence and the (p,q) – Lucas sequence. For example, Singh, Sisodiya and Ahmad studied the product of the k-Fibonacci and k-Lucas numbers. Moreover, Suvarnamani and Tatong showed some results of the (p, q) - Fibonacci number. They found some properties of the (p,q) – Fibonacci number and the (p,q) – Lucas number. There are a lot of open problem about them. Moreover, the example for the application of the Fibonacci number to the generalized function was showed by Djordjevicand Srivastava. In this paper, we consider the (p,q) – Fibonacci sequence and the (p,q) – Lucas sequence. We used the Binet’s formulas to show that some properties of the product of the (p,q) – Fibonacci number and the (p,q) – Lucas number. We get some generalized properties on the product of the (p,q) – Fibonacci number and the (p,q) – Lucas number.

  4. ONLINE TRACER STUDY OF BUNG HATTA UNIVERSITY Download Article

    Karmila Suryani, Khairudin and Eril Syahmaidi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (20-27)
    • No of Download = 303

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    This research serves as the basis to design an online graduate tracking system needed by Bung Hatta University to meet the standards required by National Accreditation Board of Higher Education Institutions of Indonesia (BAN-PT) and the University stakeholders. The system, which is called Tracer Study, is programmed by using PHP and MySQL programming languages and by applying CMS Bootstrap. There are four actors/elements involving in the Tracer Study, namely: Graduates/Alumni, Employers of the Graduates, University Official, and Administrator of the System. The system applies waterfall method with several stages of processing, namely analysis, designing, coding, testing, and maintenance. The design of Tracer Study has already been tested at small scale within the circle of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education and is currently applied at big scale by uploading the same at the website of Bung Hatta University after obtaining the approval of University official.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF TRIGONA HONEY AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus PLANKTONIC AND BIOFILM CULTURES Download Article

    Wen Jie Ng, Yek Jia Chan, Zhi Khoon Lau, Ping Ying Lye and Kah Yaw Ee
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (28-33)
    • No of Download = 486

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    Trigona honey was analyzed for bactericidal and antibiofilm potencies using plate count and spectrophotometry methods, respectively, against different Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including ATCC 25923 strain, ATCC 33591 methicillin resistant strain (MRSA), and two clinical isolates from wounds. Besides, the relationship between anti-staphylococcal effects and antioxidant capacity of Trigona honey was discussed. All S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antibacterial action of Trigona honey. Lysis of the planktonic bacterial cells was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Despite moderate levels of phenolic content (106.62 mg GAE/kg), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (40.94% RSA), and FRAP value (419.50 μM Fe (П)/100g), Trigona honey exhibited potent inhibitory effect (75-90%) on biofilm formation, especially in 20% (v/v) honey. Additionally, the effects of functional phytochemicals and acidity (pH 2.31) in 20% (v/v) honey were suggested to contribute up to 70% reduction on established biofilm. In short, Trigona honey exhibited high antibacterial and antibiofilm activities, suggesting a potential therapeutic agent in staphylococcal wound infection.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRUCTURE IN BUILDING USING DIFFERENT PARTITION RECEIVING EXPENSE EARTHQUAKE Download Article

    Sutrisno, Rusnardi Rahmat Putra and Ganefri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (34-39)
    • No of Download = 248

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    Light weight building is one of the principles earthquake resistant building design. The size of the seismic forces that building received depends on the total weight of the building and the earthquake that hit the acceleration (F = ma). The heavier a building, the greater the seismic forces that will occur in the building. This study will show the comparison of the behavior V-story building structure, deviation (deplection horizontal) and the reinforcement columns for three diffrent types of building which is using different materials partition, ie partition with material brick, concrete block and lightweight concrete (Hebel). It was simulated using software SAP2000 to get all three. Simulated object is a 10 storey building with 35 m total height which is 3.5 m height for each floors, located in an earthquake zone 4, the criteria and the soil being analyzed by static method equivalents. The simulation results showed that the bigest value of V-story, deviation and reinforcement column contained in the building material brick partitions, while the smallest is the partition material Hebel. Hebel partitions large percentage decrease compared to brick partition for V-story, deviation and reinforcing successive columns are 16.1; 15.3%; 18.0%.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR 1, 3-DICHLORO-2-PROPANOL ANALYSIS Download Article

    Kanokwan Rudisirisak and Nittaya Ngowattana
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (40-43)
    • No of Download = 224

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    Soy sauce is widely used as a seasoning for many kinds of food. 1,3 Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a toxic, semi-volatile organic liquid that is soluble in water and organic solvent. It is used in a large quantity as an intermediate in epichlorohydrin production. 1,3-DCP is a major raw material in the chemical paper industry, but it is a problem in the production of foods, such as soy sauces and other acid-hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. The normal method to analyze 1,3-DCP is an expensive and time-consuming GC-MS technique using a highly purified sample. Our purpose was to reduce the expense and time of the analysis. Therefore, this research focused on improvement of 1,3-DCP analysis methodology by using an electrochemical technique. We produced a carbon paste electrode, which was used as the working electrode. We studied the suitable conditions for analysis by using a voltammetry technique; electric potential and NaOH in oxidation reaction of 1,3-DCP and an amperometry technique; interval time of reaction at electrode surface (5 and 10 minutes), stirring rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm). It was found that the electric potential and the interval time of oxidation reaction for 1,3-DCP analysis were 1.3 V. and 5 minute intervals, respectively. Moreover, we found that 4.0 M NaOH and 100 rpm stirring rate were suitable for this analysis. The result of our research were 0.02 mg/dm3 detection limit, 81.27 % recovery, 13.339 ppm sensitivity, 0.67-4.67 ppm linear range, 6.95 % RSD of solution preparation, 3.95 % RSD of injection and 5.15 % RSD of the carbon paste working electrode.

  8. QUANTUM PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR ECONOMIC DISPATCH PROBLEM USING CUBIC FUNCTION CONSIDERING POWER LOSS CONSTRAINT Download Article

    Fahad Parvez Mahdi, Pandian Vasant, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud, Junzo Watada, Vish Kallimani and Patrick Yeoh Siew Fai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (44-50)
    • No of Download = 800

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    In this paper, quantum computing (QC) inspired particle swarm optimization (QPSO) technique is utilized to solve economic dispatch (ED) problem, which has strong, robust and reliable search capability with powerful convergence properties. Here, authors use cubic criterion function to represent ED instead of the traditional quadratic function, to make the system robust against nonlinearities of actual power generators. Power balance, power loss and generator limit constraints are considered in this research work. To show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method, authors have compared the obtained results with other algorithms like PSO and GA for ED problem on 3-unit and 5-unit power generating systems. The obtained results demonstrate QPSO’s superiority over other methods in terms of providing quality solutions with significant amount of robustness and computationally efficiency.

  9. AN EVALUATION OF ELECTRICITY CONSTRUCTION SERVICE INDUSTRIAL NEEDS-BASED ELECTRICAL INSTALLER Download Article

    Sukardi and M. Giatman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (51-59)
    • No of Download = 380

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    Competent performances by professional electrical installers are expected in the community. However, proper evaluation tools to assess competent performance on professional electrical installations that meet industrial needs of electrical construction service industry are scarce. This research studies the evaluation tools on electrical installation that are based on competent design, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of electrical installations. Using responses collected from 210 respondents, we found statistically significant relationships on those studied variables. The analysis technique used to validate research data is Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The finding an evaluation tools on electrical installation fitting with the value of chi-square < 2 df (206.06 < 356.0), P-value = 0.07350 (> 0.05), and RMSEA = 0.026 (< 0.05).These results have significant policy implications to improve the performance evaluation process of the electrical construction service industry in Province of Sumatera Barat, Indonesia. It also further enriches the body of knowledge on performance evaluation and its impacts on the performance of electrical construction service industry in Indonesia as a developing nation.

  10. VIRTUAL SCREENING OF COMMERCIAL CYCLIC PEPTIDES AS β -OG POCKET BINDER INHIBITOR IN DENGUE VIRUS SEROTYPE 2 Download Article

    Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan, Arli Aditya Parikesit, Vincentia Cheryl Adam, Mochammad Arfin Fardiansyah Nasution, Ratih Dyah Puspitasari and Djati Kerami
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (60-68)
    • No of Download = 580

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    Dengue virus (DENV) has caused infectious disease which puts roughly 40% of world population at risk. An antiviral drug against DENV infection remains unavailable up until now. This research aims to find a drug candidate, which can inhibit β-OG binding site by a screening of 308 commercial cyclic peptides virtually. Through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, it is discovered that cyclo (-D-Trp-Tyr) ligand has good affinity with β-OG binding pocket. Ligand forms a stable complex with envelope protein in 310 K and 312 K. Cyclo(-D-Trp-Tyr) ligand is revealed to be a potential inhibitor of β-OG binding pocket. Thus, it is feasible for further development as an antiviral drug against DENV infection.

  11. A SIMULATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTEM PROJECTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING POSTGRADUATES Download Article

    Sakgasit Ramingwong and Lachana Ramingwong
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (69-74)
    • No of Download = 286

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    Risks management is an essential element which can help increasing success rate in engineering projects. Undeniably, efficient implementation of this process requires not only knowledge but also real experience in the project context. In information system projects, which are widely known for its challenging and unique nature, the importance of risk management increase substantially. It is significant that all stakeholders, either at technical, management or other levels, need to realize the potentials of major risks. This research reports a result from an implementation of a simulation on risk management in information system projects based on a simulation called ARMI: A Risk Management Incorporation for industrial engineering postgraduate students. The results show that the simulation can be effectively implemented for participants with non-technical background.

  12. THE ROLE OF LOCUS CONTROL AND LEARNING STYLES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLENDED LEARNING MODEL AT PSU Download Article

    Z Mawardi Effendi, Hansi Effendi and Hastria Effendi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (75-80)
    • No of Download = 415

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    This article is the report of the first phase of the research and development (R&D) in developing a blended learning model of instruction at the PSU. The objectives of the first phase were to find information about: the readiness of PSU to utilize blended learning as a model of instruction, the profile of locus of control, the profile of learning style of students, and student’s expectations about the use of blended learning. The study conducted at the Faculty of Economic, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Sport Science, and Computer Center.. It was founded that PSU has already had a sufficient necessary infrastructure to start developing a blended learning model; In terms of locus of control the students can be categorized into external and internal locus of control, and most of them (71%) are internal locus of control; In terms of learning styles, students can be categorized into the visual learning style, auditory, and kinesthetic. Most of the students have visual learning style (59%), followed by auditory (24%), and kinesthetic (17%). Furthermore, students expected learning by blended learning would be interesting, useful and not difficult. The variables, locus of control and learning styles, needs to be considered in developing a web-based learning model.

  13. ETHICS ON SOCIAL NETWORKING: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY IN THAILAND Download Article

    Lachana Ramingwong and and Sakgasit Ramingwong
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (81-86)
    • No of Download = 371

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    The rapid growth of social networks and their users has been phenomenon. This brings numerous changes in everyday life, both positively and negatively. Ethics have become a major growing challenge in this area. Sensitive issues such as privacy, impersonation and cyberbullying are increasingly causing more damage to the community. This research reviews ethical issues on social networks. It also reports results from a survey on the most anticipated ethical concerns from the viewpoints of undergraduate students from Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Lost of privacy, misinformation and impersonation are anticipated as the worst ethical misconducted.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF THE TRANSFER PATH USING A MOVING FLOW SEPARATION SYSTEM AND A TRANSPORTATION VULNERABLE ESCALATOR SYSTEM Download Article

    Minjung Shin, Jinho Hur, Youngsam Moon, Jinho Kim and Heekyu Kim
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (87-92)
    • No of Download = 349

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    Traffic demands have increased rapidly, and traffic congestion has been raised due to the urbanization in Seoul. Most of the metro stations of commuting time have a moving speed and a density corresponding to the E or F grade in LOS(Level of Service). In particular, Jongno-sam-ga Station has a geometric structure because it is the transfer station of the 3 lines located in the center of Seoul. So the long transfer distances and the complex transfer system of Jongno-sam-ga Station induce an increment in transfer time and a decrement in public transportation demands. Therefore, this research was investigated the present conditions of the movement and transfer path on Jongno-sam-ga Station through a site inspection, and it presented the improvement plan through the analysis on the movement and transfer path for the general public, the disabled and the elderly. Based on the results, the improvements of the transfer paths by separating the moving flow and the transfer paths and applying the transportation vulnerable escalator system are suggested.

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF GRAPHIC DESIGN INTERACTIVE CD FOR LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT USING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS Download Article

    Asrul Huda, Kasman Rukun and Yeka Hendriyani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (93-97)
    • No of Download = 294

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    Preliminary observation by the author demonstrated that the learning achievement of graphic design of the students at SMK of Dharmasraya Regency was relatively low. It was allegedly due to the poor support from the media for learning achievement. This research aims to analyzing the need for the construction of the Graphic Design interactive CD for the improvement of the students' learning achievement in the entrepreneurship product-oriented graphic design subject. Based on the analysis result of the student needs, from 30 respondents, it was found that 22 respondents (73.33%) answered that they were highly agreed with the development of the Graphic Design interactive CD and the Learning Modul of the entrepreneurship product-oriented Graphic Design and 8 respondents (26.67%) agreed. The other factors, some of school still has lack facilities, such as lack computer or lack in focus. The purpose of these facilities to make the student interested in learning process. Based on the explanation above in this paper will discussed about construction of graphic design interactive CD for learning achievement using frequency distribution of respondents.

  16. EFFICACY OF STINGLESS BEE LEPIDOTRIGONA TERMINATA AS INSECT POLLINATOR OF F1 HYBRID CUCUMBER Download Article

    Anchalee Sawatthum, Piyaporn Jitake, Orapin Rangyai, Rattana Prangprayong, Piyaporn Pimboon and Kanokporn Suparit
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (98-102)
    • No of Download = 364

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    This research aimed to study the efficacy of stingless bee Lepidotrigona terminata as insect pollinator of F1 Hybrid cucumber. The experiments were conducted at experimental farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology, Thanyaburi. The experiment was divided into two parts. The first part, efficacy study of stingless bee as insect pollinator of F1 hybrid cucumber was studied. Experimental design used was Randomized Block Design with four treatments and three replications which were opened – pollination, handed – pollination, stingless bee – pollination, and closed – pollination. The results revealed that cucumber fruit sets were found only in opened – pollination and handed – pollination treatments, with 9.33 and 12.66 fruits, respectively. While no fruit set was found in another two treatments which were closed and stingless bee – pollinations. Second, species diversity and numbers of insect pollinators that visited cucumber flowers during 6.00 a.m. – 18.00 p.m. were determined. As a result, four insect species had visited cucumber flower and the most abundant visitor was European bees (Apis mellifera) that had visited, both male and female cucumber flowers at 09.00 a.m.

  17. REDUCING CHEESE-MAKING BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL THROUGH ETHANOL FERMENTATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF DISTILLERY WASTE FOR FERTILIZER Download Article

    Gemilang Lara Utama, Tb. Benito A. Kurnani, Sunardi and Roostita L. Balia
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (103-107)
    • No of Download = 297

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    Whey as cheese-making by-product has become a threat toward the sustainability of production process at small medium enterprises (SMEs) cheese producer. High organic contents lead high pollution load to the environment, because until now the producer still dispose the waste to the stream or land. Whey utilization through simple ethanol fermentation could reduce high organic content and highly implementable in SMEs level because its easiness. The research aimed to determine waste minimization through ethanol fermentation and the utilization of distillery wastes for fertilizer. Research was done experimentally with substrate variation (whey and napa cabbage) with and without 10% molases addition that fermented by indigenous yeasts consortium (Candida lambica and Prototheca zopfii) on various temperature (24-27°C and 17-21°C) for 96 hours. The ethanol contents measured by using dichromate oxidation methods. After fermentation finished substrates distilled two stages, the first stage distillery wastes were analyzed for the contents of N (Kjeldahl), P2O5 (Bray I) and Potassium (AAS). Results showed that the combination of whey and napa cabbage (1:1) with 10% molasses addition that fermented by Candida lambica and Prototheca zopfii on 17-21°C resulted in 11.06% of bioethanol contents in 72 hours fermentation. After two stages distillation, 11.2% substrates can converted into ethanol and 37.9% of water resulted from second stage distillation that can disposed to the environment. Meanwhile, 50.9% of first stage distillery wastes has 0.56% N, 0.83% P and 0.35 K which suitable with the Indonesian Agriculture Ministerial Decree No.28/2009 of minimum technical requirement for organic fertilizer. Ethanol fermentation from cheese whey with napa cabbage wastes and 10% molasses addition that fermented by Candida lambica and Prototheca zopfii consortium and the utilization of its distillery wastes for fertilizer could minimize wastes up to 62.1%.

  18. EVALUATION OF METAL CONTAMINATION FOR RIVER USING BRYOPHYTE IN THE KINOKAWA RIVER CATCHMENT Download Article

    Takuma Kubohara and Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (108-115)
    • No of Download = 388

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    Metal concentration of river water is not always useful for evaluating metal contamination in a catchment because metal concentration of river water is neither always high nor uniform. Therefore, we studied the evaluation of river metal contamination using the metal concentration of bryophyte. Metal concentrations of bryophyte sampled in both the lower stream of the closed Cu mine (120 to 26,000, 25 to 2,400 and 50 to 190 mg/kg-dry for Cu, Co and Ni) and the serpentinite (24 to 59 and 58 to 650 mg/kg-dry for Co and Ni) were higher than background metal concentrations of bryophyte (2 to 96, 2 to 20 and 2 to 43 mg/kg-dry for Cu, Co and Ni). Therefore, it was thought that metal concentrations of bryophyte sampled in the lower stream of the closed Cu mine (Cu, Co and Ni) and the serpentinite (Co and Ni) were affected by the closed Cu mine and the serpentinte, respectively. A kind of hyper accumulator bryophyte similar Scopelophila cataractae was often found around the closed Cu mine and was found around the serpentinite. Its metal concentration was high (1,100 to 26,000, 33 to 2,400 and 81 to 650 mg/kg-dry for Cu, Co and Ni). Metal concentrations of another hyper accumulator bryophyte similar Scopelophila cataractae had high and a wide range of metal concentrations (2 to 5,900, 2 to 150 and 2 to 590 mg/kg-dry for Cu, Co and Ni). Therefore, those of hyper accumulator bryophyte were thought to be useful for a Cu, Co and Ni contamination indicator.

  19. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE UTILIZATION OF LIQUID SMOKE FROM PALM KERNEL SHELLS FOR ORGANIC MOUTHWASH Download Article

    M. Faisal, Asri Gani, Husni and Hiroyuki Daimon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (116-120)
    • No of Download = 285

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    Palm kernel shells are a waste product of the palm oil industry. They have a high content of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, all of which can be converted through a pyrolysis process into liquid smoke that contains the oxidized organic compounds, ketones, aldehydes, phenols, and carboxylic acid groups with antimicrobial properties. The objective of this research is to study the potential use of grade 1 liquid smoke as organic mouthwash. This research considers liquid smoke’s antimicrobial properties and focuses on analyzing its ability to inhibit the growth of streptococcus mutans living in the oral cavity. The liquid smoke used was produced by pyrolysis performed in temperatures of 340-420oC. In order to obtain grade 1 liquid smoke, distillation was subsequently carried out at 190oC. The ability of the produced liquid smoke to inhibit streptococcus mutans was then tested for its minimum inhibitory concentration and diameter of inhibitory region. Both minimum inhibitory concentration and diameter of inhibitory region tests were performed with a liquid smoke concentration of 0.005-0.1 mg/ml. Test results of the minimum inhibitory concentration showed that the liquid smoke possesses good antimicrobial properties against streptococcus mutans, while test results of the diameter of inhibitory region was medium at 6-9 mm. The highest diameter of inhibitory region was obtained from liquid smoke created from pyrolysis performed at 400oC and a concentrate of 0.1 mg/ml.

  20. ADSORPTION OF Cd AND Pb USING BIOMASS OF MICROALGAE SPIRULINA PLATENSIS Download Article

    Lily Surayya Eka Putri, Putri Sintya Dewi and Dasumiati
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (121-126)
    • No of Download = 274

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    Microalgae is one of the most common sources of biomass for heavy metal removal from wastewater. Spirulina platensis is one of Indonesia's blue-green algae species found in Indonesian waters and has the ability to adsorb heavy metals, but very little is used for metal adsorption. As a cost-effectiveness approach, S. platensis was selected in this study which aimed to determine the effectiveness of Cd and Pb uptake by S. platensis for 10 days experiment, using Dutatonic solution as microalgae growth medium. The method used was complete random sampling with 3 concentration variations and 3 repetitions on each metal. The concentration variations for Cd were 0.1, 1, 5 mg/L, and 1, 2, 4 mg/L for Pb. The optimum adsorption concentration was tested by AAS. Biomass and cell size (length and width) were also measured to understand the physiological effects of Cd and Pb exposure on S. platensis. The results showed that Cd was more effectively adsorbed by S. platensis than Pb which reached 91.8% (day 5) at concentrations of 1 mg/L Cd and 84.3% (day 5) at concentrations of 1 mg/L Pb. The biomass and cell size of S. platensis were not influenced by the variation of Cd concentration (p>0.05), while Pb was significantly at the 5% significance level (p <0.05). It can be assumed that Pb was more toxic than Cd for S. platensis because the weight of biomass decreased in increasing Pb concentration.

  21. GEOTHERMAL AND HOT SPRING WATER ORIGIN DETERMINATION USING OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN STABLE ISOTOPE IN THE TOYOHIRAKAWA CATCHMENT, HOKKAIDO, JAPAN Download Article

    Hiroyuki Ii, Hiroshi Kanbara and Yohei Kawabata
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (127-132)
    • No of Download = 467

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    Jyozankei hot spring located near Sapporo City in Hokkaido is famous for many visitors and hot spring quality in Japan. Ground temperatures of 220 °C were reached in the Toyoha Mine10 km west of Jyozankei hot spring where several boreholes less than 2000 m in depth for investigating geothermal water were drilled. Subsequently, a hydrological investigation to clarify the influence of geothermal development on Jyozankei hot Spring was performed. Snow, river, well, spring, hot spring and the geothermal borehole waters in the Toyohirakawa catchment including Jyozankei hot spring were sampled and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes of water were analyzed to determine water origin for hot spring and geothermal water. As a result, Jyozankei hot spring and the borehole waters were thought to arise from mixed waters of magmatic and surface waters. Borehole water, from less than 2000 m in depth, was 10 to 30 % of the magmatic water and Jyozankei hot spring water was less than 10 % of the magmatic water. Surface water was recharged at the upstream of the Toyohirakawa catchment, with snow from the upper stream of the northwest catchment being an important resource of surface water for both Jyozankei hot spring water and geothermal water from the boreholes.

  22. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF EROSION AND LAND CRITICALITY OF THE UPSTREAM CITARUM WATERSHED Download Article

    Ana Nurganah Chaidar, Indratmo Soekarno,Agung Wiyono and Joko Nugroho
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (133-140)
    • No of Download = 432

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    High soil sedimentation in the Upstream Citarum Watershed has reduced the capacity of aging Saguling Hydroelectric Power Plant in West Bandung, West Java, a supplier of electricity to Java and Bali. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of erosion danger and land criticality occurring at the Upstream Citarum Watershed to characterize conservation measures to reduce soil and water sediment transfer to reservoirs. To estimate the value of the actual distribution of soil erosion in the river basin, we use the model-based Arc-GIS USLE, which incorporates information on the spatial allocation of each parameter USLE. Cell grid systems available in GIS feature robust functionality; at each grid cell on the map overlay, results can be obtained for the value erosion rate per unit area grid cell, which can then be converted into the speed of erosion per hectare. Simulation results in various fields to control sedimentation caused by erosion in the soil have incorporated the fact that vacant land has been converted into plantations; land adjustment can be simulated with existing spatial planning and the installation of a check dam for sediment control. However, this approach is not optimal to reduce the impact of the age of the reservoirs. To optimize the Upstream Citarum Watershed requires management of various technical and non-technical aspects of the relationships among groups of users and the areas, and of sustainable conservation systems for agriculture.

  23. RESTRAINT EFFECTS OF 2-MIB CONCENTRATION INCREASES DUE TO TOTAL PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT IN THE UPPER KINOKAWA WATERSHED Download Article

    Ryota Hino, Nobuyuki Egusa, Yasuhiro Wada, Masahide Ishizuka and Tatemasa Hirata
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (141-148)
    • No of Download = 289

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    The off-flavor taste of tap water due to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is caused by blue-green algae. This is one of the water quality problems associated with high nutrient loads, such as those found in the Kinokawa River, with drains the southwestern part of the Kii peninsula in Japan. Water quality monitoring data showed that 2-MIB tended to increase when total phosphorus (TP) concentration exceeded 0.02 mg/L. This study employed mass load and river water quality analyses coupled with water runoff analyses to examine ways of mitigating TP load in river water. In this study, it was revealed following things. (1) TP mass load could be reduced by approximately half if the industrial drainage volume standards defined in the Water Pollution Control Law were more stringent. (2) TP concentration could be decreased by 41% in response to TP mass load reduction and by 5% in response to an increase in river flow rate. (3) TP mass load reduction combined with an increase in river flow rate could reduce TP concentration to less than 0.015 mg/L and prevent increases in 2-MIB in tap water.